Debian Edu / Skolelinux Buster 10+edu0 Manual

Fecha de publicación: 26/07/2020


Tabla de contenidos

1. Manual for Debian Edu 10+edu0 Codename Buster
2. Acerca de Debian Edu y Skolelinux.
2.1. Un poco de historia, y el porqué de dos nombres
3. Arquitectura
3.1. Red
3.1.1. La configuración de red predeterminada
3.1.2. Servidor principal (tjener)
3.1.3. Servicios que corren en el servidor principal
3.1.4. LTSP server(s)
3.1.5. Clientes ligeros
3.1.6. Estaciones sin disco
3.1.7. Clientes en red.
3.2. Administración
3.2.1. Instalación
3.2.2. Configuración del acceso al sistema de archivos
4. Requisitos
4.1. Requisitos de hardware
4.2. Hardware conocido que funciona
5. Requerimientos para una instalación de red
5.1. Configuración por defecto
5.2. Enrutador de Internet
6. Instalación y opciones de descarga
6.1. Donde encontrar información adicional
6.2. Download the installation media for Debian Edu 10+edu0 Codename Buster
6.2.1. amd64 or i386
6.2.2. netinst iso images for amd64 or i386
6.2.3. BD iso images for i386 or amd64
6.2.4. Verification of downloaded image files
6.2.5. Sources
6.3. Solicite un CD / DVD por correo
6.4. Instalacion de Debian Edu
6.4.1. Main server installation scenarios
6.4.2. Desktop choice
6.4.3. Modular installation
6.4.4. Installation types and options
6.4.5. El proceso de instalación
6.4.6. Notas en algunas características
6.4.7. Instalación utilizando memorias USB lugar de CD / Blu-ray
6.4.8. Instalación a través de la red (PXE) e inicio de estaciones sin disco.
6.4.9. Imágenes personalizadas
6.5. Captura de pantalla del paseo
7. Iniciando
7.1. Pasos mínimos para iniciar
7.1.1. Servicios que corren en el servidor principal
7.2. Introducción a GOsa²
7.2.1. GOsa² Login plus Overview
7.3. Gestión de usuarios con GOsa²
7.3.1. Agregar usuarios
7.3.2. Buscar, modificar y borrar usuarios
7.3.3. Establecer contraseñas
7.3.4. Administración avanzada de usuarios
7.4. Gestión de usuarios con GOsa²
7.4.1. Gestión de grupos en la linea de comando
7.5. Administración de equipos con GOsa²
7.5.1. Buscar y eliminar computadoras
7.5.2. Modificar equipos existentes / Manejo del grupo de red
8. Printer Management
8.1. Use printers attached to workstations
9. Sincronización del reloj
10. Redimensionando particiones completas
11. Maintenance
11.1. Actualizar el software
11.1.1. Mantente informado sobre actualizaciones de seguridad
11.2. Gestión de las copias de seguridad
11.3. Monitorización del servidor
11.3.1. Munin
11.3.2. Icinga
11.3.3. Sitesummary
11.4. Más información sobre personalizaciones de Debian Edu
12. Actualizaciones
12.1. Notas generales sobre la actualización
12.2. Upgrades from Debian Edu Stretch
12.2.1. Upgrading the main server
12.2.2. Upgrading a workstation
12.2.3. Upgrading LTSP chroots
12.2.4. Recreating an LTSP chroot
12.2.5. Add additional LTSP chroot to support 64-bit-PC clients
12.3. Upgrades from older Debian Edu / Skolelinux installations (before Stretch)
13. Guías
14. Guías para administración general
14.1. Seguimiento de /etc usando el sistema de control de versiones git
14.1.1. Ejemplos de uso
14.2. Redimensionando Particiones
14.2.1. Gestión de volúmenes lógicos
14.3. Installing a graphical environment on the main-server to use GOsa²
14.4. Usar ldapvi
14.5. Kerberized NFS
14.5.1. How to enable it
14.6. Standardskriver
14.7. JXplorer, una interfaz gráfica para LDAP
14.8. ldap-createuser-krb, una herramienta para línea de comando
14.9. Using stable-updates
14.10. Using backports to install newer software
14.11. Actualizar con un CD o similar
14.12. Automatic cleanup of leftover processes
14.13. Instalación automática de actualizaciones de seguridad
14.14. Apagado automático de las computadoras durante la noche
14.14.1. Como configurar shutdown-at-night
14.15. Acceso a servidores Debian-Edu ubicados detrás de un firewall
14.16. Installing additional service machines for spreading the load from main-server
14.17. HowTos de wiki.debian.org
15. Advanced administration howto
15.1. Personalizaciones de usuarios con GOsa²
15.1.1. Create Users in Year Groups
15.2. Other User Customisations
15.2.1. Crear directorios en el directorio home de los usuarios
15.2.2. Easy access to USB drives and CD-ROMs/DVDs
15.3. Use a dedicated storage server
15.4. Restrict ssh login access
15.4.1. Setup without LTSP clients
15.4.2. Setup with LTSP clients
15.4.3. A note for more complex setups
16. HowTos for the desktop
16.1. Set up a multi-language desktop environment
16.2. Reproducir DVDs
16.3. Handwriting fonts
17. HowTos para clientes en red
17.1. Introducción a clientes ligeros y estaciones de trabajo sin disco
17.1.1. LTSP client type selection
17.2. Configurar el menú PXE
17.2.1. Configurar la instalación de PXE
17.2.2. Agregar un repositorio personalizado para instalaciones PXE
17.2.3. Cambiar el menú PXE en un servidor combinado (servidor principal y LTSP)
17.2.4. Separate main and LTSP server
17.2.5. Use a different LTSP client network
17.2.6. Add LTSP chroot to support 32-bit-PC clients
17.3. Changing network settings
17.4. LTSP en detalle
17.4.1. Configuración del cliente LTSP en LDAP (y en lts.conf)
17.4.2. Force all LTSP clients to use LXDE as default desktop environment
17.4.3. Desktop autoloader
17.4.4. Load-balancing LTSP servers
17.4.5. Sonido con clientes LTSP
17.4.6. Use printers attached to LTSP clients
17.4.7. Use NFS instead of NBD
17.4.8. Actualización del entorno LTSP
17.4.9. Slow login and security
17.5. Connecting Windows machines to the network / Windows integration
17.5.1. Joining a domain
17.6. Remote Desktop
17.6.1. Xrdp
17.6.2. X2Go
17.6.3. Clientes de escritorio remoto disponible
18. Samba en Debian Edu
18.1. Cómo empezar
18.1.1. Acceder los archivos mediante Samba
18.2. Domain Membership
18.2.1. Windows hostname
18.3. First Domain Logon
19. HowTos for teaching and learning
19.1. Teaching Programming
19.2. Monitoring pupils
19.3. Restricting pupils' network access
20. HowTos for users
20.1. Changing passwords
20.2. Java
20.2.1. Running standalone Java applications
20.3. Using email
20.3.1. Thunderbird
20.3.2. Obtener un ticket Kerberos para leer correos en las estaciones de trabajo sin disco
20.4. Volume control
21. Contribuir
21.1. Contribute locally
21.2. Contribuye a nivel global
21.3. Documentación para editores y traductores
22. Soporte
22.1. Soporte basado en voluntarios
22.1.1. in English
22.1.2. in Norwegian
22.1.3. in German
22.1.4. in French
22.2. Soporte profesional
23. New features in Debian Edu Buster
23.1. New features for Debian Edu 10+edu0 Codename Buster
23.1.1. Installation changes
23.1.2. Actualizaciones de software
23.1.3. Actualizaciones en documentación y traducciones
23.1.4. Other changes compared to the previous release
23.1.5. Known issues
24. Copyright y authores
25. Traducciones de este documento
25.1. HowTo translate this document
25.1.1. Translate using PO files
25.1.2. Translate online using a web browser
26. Appendix A - The GNU General Public License
26.1. Manual for Debian Edu 10+edu0 Codename Buster
26.2. LICENCIA PUBLICA GENERAL GNU
26.3. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
27. Appendix B - no Debian Edu Live CD/DVDs for Buster yet
27.1. Features of the Standalone image
27.2. Features of the Workstation image
27.3. Activando el soporte regional y traducciones
27.4. Cosas para saber
27.5. Problemas conocidos con la imágen
27.6. Descarga
28. Apéndice C - Características de publicaciones anteriores
28.1. New features for Debian Edu 9+edu0 Codename Stretch released 2017-06-17
28.1.1. Installation changes
28.1.2. Actualizaciones de software
28.1.3. Actualizaciones en documentación y traducciones
28.1.4. Other changes compared to the previous release
28.2. New features for Debian Edu 8+edu0 Codename Jessie released 2016-07-02
28.2.1. Installation changes
28.2.2. Actualizaciones de software
28.2.3. Actualizaciones en documentación y traducciones
28.2.4. Other changes compared to the previous release
28.3. New features in Debian Edu 7.1+edu0 Codename Wheezy released 2013-09-28
28.3.1. User visible changes
28.3.2. Installation changes
28.3.3. Actualizaciones de software
28.3.4. Actualizaciones en documentación y traducciones
28.3.5. LDAP related changes
28.3.6. Other changes
28.3.7. Known issues
28.4. Historic information about older releases
28.4.1. Más información sobre versiones más anteriores

1. Manual for Debian Edu 10+edu0 Codename Buster


Traducción:
2007 José L. Redrejo Rodríguez
2009-2012, 2015 Rafael Rivas
2010, 2012-2013 Norman Garcia

Inicio de sesión de Debian Edu

This is the manual for the Debian Edu Buster 10+edu0 release.

The version at http://wiki.debian.org/DebianEdu/Documentation/Buster is a wiki and updated frequently.

Translations are part of the debian-edu-doc package which can be installed on a webserver, and is available online.

2. Acerca de Debian Edu y Skolelinux.

Debian Edu a.k.a Skolelinux es una distribución basada en Debian, proporcionando un ambiente "fuera de la caja", completamente configurado para una red escolar.

The chapters about hardware and network requirements and about the architecture contain basic environment details.

After installation of a main server all services needed for a school network are set up and the system is ready to be used. Only users and machines need to be added via GOsa², a comfortable Web-UI, or any other LDAP editor. A netbooting environment using PXE has also been prepared, so after initial installation of the main server from CD, Blu-ray disc or USB flash drive all other machines can be installed via the network, this includes "roaming workstations" (ones that can be taken away from the school network, usually laptops or netbooks) as well as PXE booting for diskless machines like traditional thin clients.

Several educational applications like GeoGebra, Kalzium, KGeography, GNU Solfege and Scratch are included in the default desktop setup, which can be extended easily and almost endlessly via the Debian universe.

2.1. Un poco de historia, y el porqué de dos nombres

Skolelinux es una distribución de Linux, hecha por el proyecto Debian Edu. Siendo una distribución mezclada de Debian es un sub-proyecto oficial de Debian

Lo que esto significa, es que Skolelinux es una versión de Debian que proporciona un ambiente "out of the box" de una red escolar completamente configurada.

The Skolelinux project in Norway was founded on July 2nd 2001 and about the same time Raphaël Hertzog started Debian-Edu in France. Since 2003 both projects are united, but both names stayed. "Skole" and (Debian-)"Education" are just two well understood terms in these regions.

Today the system is in use in several countries around the world.

3. Arquitectura

Esta sección del documento describe la arquitectura de red y los servicios proporcionados por una instalación Skolelinux.

3.1. Red

La Topología de red de Debian Edu

The figure is a sketch of the assumed network topology. The default setup of a Skolelinux network assumes that there is one (and only one) main server, while allowing the inclusion of both normal workstations and LTSP servers (with associated thin clients and/or diskless workstations). The number of workstations can be as large or small as you want (starting from none to a lot). The same goes for the LTSP servers, each of which is on a separate network so that the traffic between the clients and the LTSP server doesn't affect the rest of the network services. LTSP is explained in detail in the related HowTo chapter.

The reason that there can only be one main server in each school network is that the main server provides DHCP, and there can be only one machine doing so in each network. It is possible to move services from the main server to other machines by setting up the service on another machine, and subsequently updating the DNS configuration, pointing the DNS alias for that service to the right computer.

In order to simplify the standard setup of Skolelinux, the Internet connection runs over a separate router, also called gateway. See the Internet router chapter for details how to set up such a gateway if it is not possible to configure an existing one as needed.

3.1.1. La configuración de red predeterminada

DHCP on the main server serves the 10.0.0.0/8 network, providing a PXE boot menu where you can choose whether to install a new server/workstation, boot a thin client or a diskless workstation, run memtest, or boot from the local hard disk.

This is designed to be modified; for details, see the related HowTo chapter.

DHCP on the LTSP servers only serves a dedicated network on the second interface (192.168.0.0/24 and 192.168.1.0/24 are preconfigured options) and should seldom need to be changed.

La configuración de todas las subredes es almacenada en LDAP.

3.1.2. Servidor principal (tjener)

A Skolelinux network needs one main server (also called "tjener" which is Norwegian and means "server") which per default has the IP address 10.0.2.2 and is installed by selecting the Main Server profile. It's possible (but not required) to also select and install the LTSP Server and Workstation profiles in addition to the Main Server profile.

3.1.3. Servicios que corren en el servidor principal

With the exception of the control of the thin clients, all services are initially set up on one central computer (the main server). For performance reasons, the LTSP server(s) should be separate (though it is possible to install both the Main Server and LTSP Server profiles on the same machine). All services are allocated a dedicated DNS-name and are offered exclusively over IPv4. The allocated DNS name makes it easy to move individual services from the main server to a different machine, by simply stopping the service on the main server, and changing the DNS configuration to point to the new location of the service (which should be set up on that machine first, of course).

Para garantizar la seguridad, siempre q ue se transmitan contraseñas por la red, se hace en canal encriptado. Por tanto, no se envía ninguna contraseña en texto plano.

Abajo se encuentra una lista de los servicios que se tienen por defecto en una red Skolelinux, con el nombre de DNS en cada servicio, Si es posible, todos los archivos de configuración harán referencia al servicio por su nombre (sin el nombre del dominio), haciendo más fácil para las escuelas el cambio de dominio (si se tiene un dominio DNS) o la dirección IP que utilizan.

Table of services

Descripción de servicios

Nombre común

Nombre de servicio DNS

Registros centralizados

rsyslog

syslog

Sistema de Nombre de Dominio

DNS (BIND)

domain

Configuración automática de equipos

DHCP

bootps

Sincronización de reloj

NTP

ntp

Directorios de usuarios vía sistema de archivos de red

SMB / NFS

homes

Correo Electrónico

IMAP (Dovecot)

postoffice

Servicio de Directorio

OpenLDAP

ldap

Administración de usuarios

GOsa²

---

Servidor Web

Apache/PHP

www

Respaldo Central

sl-backup, slbackup-php

backup

Caché Web

Proxy (Squid)

webcache

Impresión

CUPS

ipp

Inicio de sesión remoto seguro

OpenSSH

ssh

Configuración Automática

CFEngine

cfengine

LTSP Server/s

LTSP

ltsp

Network Block Device Server

NBD

---

Monitoreo de servicios y equipos, reportes de fallas, histórico vía web. Reportes de fallos vía correo.

Munin, Icinga and Sitesummary

sitesummary

Cada usuario almacena sus archivos personales en su directorio home que está disponible en el servidor. Los directorios Home están accesibles desde todas las máquinas, dando a los usuarios acceso independientemente del puesto que estén usando. El servidor opera sin importar el sistema operativo. Ofrece tanto NFS para clientes UNIX, como SMB para Windows y clientes Macintosh.

By default email is set up for local delivery (i.e. within the school) only, though email delivery to the wider Internet may be set up if the school has a permanent Internet connection. Clients are set up to deliver mail to the server (using 'smarthost'), and users can access their personal mail through IMAP.

Todos los servicios usan el mismo nombre de usuario y contraseña, gracias a la base de datos centralizada para autenticación y autorización de usuarios.

Para incrementar el rendimiento al acceder frecuentente a los mismos sitios de internet hay un proxy que cachea localmente los archivos (Squid). Junto al bloqueo de tráfico web en el router este también permite el control de acceso a Internet individualmente para cada puesto.

Network configuration on the clients is done automatically using DHCP. All types of clients can be connected to the private 10.0.0.0/8 subnet and will get according IP addresses; LTSP clients should be connected to the corresponding LTSP server via the separate subnet 192.168.0.0/24 (this is to ensure that the network traffic of the LTSP clients doesn't interfere with the rest of the network services).

El registro de sucesos está centralizado, de forma que todas las computadoras envían sus mensajes al servidor. El servicio syslog está configurado para aceptar sólo mensajes entrantes desde la red local.

Por defecto, el servidor de DNS está configurado con un dominio para uso interno (*.intern), contra un servidor de DNS real ("externo") que puede configurarse. El servidor de DNS actua como un caché de DNS, de forma que todos los puestos de la red pueden usarlo como su servidor de DNS principal.

Los alumnos y profesores pueden publicar sitios web. El servidor web proporciona mecanismos para autenticar los usuarios, y para limitar el acceso a páginas individuales y subdirectorios a ciertos usuarios y grupos. Los usuarios pueden crear páginas web dinámicas, ya que el servidor web puede ejecutar programas del lado del servidor.

La información sobre las computadoras y los usuarios se puede cambiar en una ubicación central y es accesible a todos los ordenadores de la red automáticamente. Para conseguirlo, hay un servidor de directorio centralizado. El directorio tendrá información sobre los usuarios, grupos, máquinas y grupos de máquinas. Para evitar confusión entre los usuarios no habrá ninguna diferencia entre los grupos de archivos, listas de correo y grupos de red. Esto implica que los grupos de máquinas que tengan que estar en grupos de red, tienen el mismo tipo de nombre que los grupos de usuarios y listas de correo.

La administración de los usuarios y servicios se hace mediante web, y sigue estándares establecidos. Son funcionales en los navegadores que incluye Skolelinux. Es posible delegar algunas tareas a usuarios o grupos de usuarios mediante los sistemas de administración.

Para evitar algunos problemas con NFS, y hacer más simple la depuración de errores, es necesario sincronizar los relojes de todas las máquinas. Para lograr esto, el servidor Skolelinux tiene configurado un servidor NTP, y todas las estaciones y clientes se configuran para sincronizar sus relojes con el servidor. El servidor debe sincronizar su propio reloj mediante NTP con alguna de las máquinas disponibles en Internet para asegurarse de que toda la red tenga la hora correcta.

Printers are connected where convenient, either directly onto the main network, or connected to a server, workstation or LTSP server. Access to printers can be controlled for individual users according to the groups they belong to; this will be achieved by using quota and access control for printers.

3.1.4. LTSP server(s)

A Skolelinux network can have many LTSP servers (which we called "thin client servers" in releases before Stretch), which are installed by selecting the LTSP Server profile.

The LTSP servers are set up to receive syslog from thin clients and workstations, and forward these messages to the central syslog recipient.

Please note:

  • Thin clients are using the programs installed on the server.

  • Diskless workstations are using the programs installed in the server's LTSP chroot.

  • For LTSP clients a more lightweight desktop environment should be used; this can be set at installation time, see the Installation chapter for details.

  • The client root filesystem is provided using NBD (Network Block Device). After each modification to the LTSP chroot the related NBD image has to be re-generated; run ltsp-update-image on the LTSP server.

3.1.5. Clientes ligeros

A thin client setup enables ordinary PCs to function as (X-)terminals. This means that the machine boots directly from the server using PXE without using the local client hard drive. The thin client setup used is that of the Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP).

Thin clients are a good way to make use of older, weaker machines as they effectively run all programs on the LTSP server. This works as follows: the service uses DHCP and TFTP to connect to the network and boot from the network. Next, the file system is mounted from the LTSP server using NBD, and finally the X Window System is started. The display manager (LDM) connects to the LTSP server via SSH with X-forwarding. This way all data is encrypted on the network.

3.1.6. Estaciones sin disco

Las estaciones sin disco, también reciben los nombres de "clientes delgados", "clientes livianos", "estaciones tontas". Para efectos de claridad de este manual utilizaremos el término "estaciones sin disco".

Una estación sin disco, ejecuta todas las aplicaciones localmente, sin necesidad de un S.O instalado. Esto significa que el equipo, inicia las aplicaciones desde el servidor, sin necesidad de tener software instalado en un disco local.

Diskless workstations are an excellent way of reusing older (but powerful) hardware with the same low maintenance cost as with thin clients. Software is administered and maintained on the server with no need for local installed software on the clients. Home directories and system settings are stored on the server too.

3.1.7. Clientes en red.

El término "clientes en red" es usado en este manual para referirse tanto para clientes delgados, como terminales sin disco, o equipos utilizando MacOS o Windows.

3.2. Administración

All the Linux machines that are installed with the Skolelinux installer will be administrable from a central computer, most likely the server. It will be possible to log in to all machines via SSH, and thereby have full access to the machines. As root one needs to run kinit first to get a Kerberos TGT.

Toda la información de los usuarios se guarda en un directorio LDAP. Las actualizaciones de las cuentas de usuario se hacen contra esta base de datos, que es la que usan los clientes para autenticarse.

3.2.1. Instalación

Currently there are two kinds of installation media images: netinst and BD. Both images can also be booted from USB sticks.

The aim is to be able to install a server from any type of medium once, and install all other clients over the network by booting from the network.

Solo la instalación en red necesita acceso a Internet durante la instalación.

The installation should not ask any questions, with the exception of desired language (e.g. Norwegian Bokmål, Nynorsk, Sami) and machine profile (main server, workstation, LTSP server, ...). All other configuration will be set up automatically with reasonable values, to be changed from a central location by the system administrator subsequent to the installation.

3.2.2. Configuración del acceso al sistema de archivos

Cada cuenta de usuario de Skolelinux tiene asignada una sección del sistema de archivos en el servidor de archivos. Esta sección (directorio home) contiene los archivos de configuración del usuario, documentos, correos electrónicos y páginas web. Algunos de los archivos deberían tener acceso de lectura para otros usuarios del sistema, algunos podrían ser de lectura para todos a través de Internet, y algunos no deberían ser accesibles por nadie que no fuera el usuario.

Para asegurar que todos los discos serán utilizados para directorios de datos de los usuarios o directorios compartidos, pueden poseer nombres únicos entre todas los ordenadores durante la instalación al ser montados como /skole/host/directory/. Inicialmente, un directorio es creado en el servidor de archivos, /skole/tjener/home0/ en el que todas las cuentas de usuarios son creadas. Más directorios pueden ser creados cuando sea necesario acomodar grupos de usuarios particulares o patrones particulares de uso.

Para habilitar el acceso compartido de archivos según el sistema de permisos de UNIX, los usuarios necesitan ser parte de un grupo compartido adicional (como "students") así como al grupo inicial al que pertenecen de manera predeterminada.Si los usuarios tienen una umask apropiado para hacer artículos de nueva creación para compartir archivos en grupos accesibles (002 o 007), y si los directorios que están trabajando en son setgid para asegurar que los archivos hereden el grupo de la propiedad correcta, el resultado es controlada entre el miembros de un grupo.

The initial access settings for newly created files are a matter of policy. The Debian default umask is 022 (which would not allow group-access as described above), but Debian Edu uses a default of 002 - meaning that files are created with read access for everybody, which can later be removed by explicit user action. This can alternatively be changed (by editing /etc/pam.d/common-session) to a umask of 007 - meaning read access is initially blocked, necessitating user action to make them accessible. The first approach encourages knowledge sharing, and makes the system more transparent, whereas the second method decreases the risk of unwanted spreading of sensitive information. The problem with the first solution is that it is not apparent to the users that the material they create will be accessible to all other users. They can only detect this by inspecting other users' directories and seeing that their files are readable. The problem with the second solution is that few people are likely to make their files accessible, even if they do not contain sensitive information and the content would be helpful to inquisitive users who want to learn how others have solved particular problems (typically configuration issues).

4. Requisitos

Hay diferentes formas de usar una solución Skolelinux. Puede instalarse en un sólo PC o en una amplia región con muchas escuelas operadas centralmente. Esta variedad de configuraciones hace una gran diferencia en la forma de configurar las cosas dependiendo de los elementos de red, servidores y puestos de cliente.

4.1. Requisitos de hardware

El propósito de los diferentes perfiles es explicado en el capítulo Arquitecturas de red.

/!\ If LTSP is intended to be used, take a look at the LTSP Hardware Requirements wiki page.

  • The computers running Debian Edu / Skolelinux must have either 32 bit (Debian architecture 'i386', oldest supported processors are 686 class ones) or 64 bit (Debian architecture 'amd64') x86 processors.

  • At least 12 GiB RAM for 30 thin clients and 20 GiB RAM for 50-60 thin clients are recommended for the main and LTSP server profiles.

  • Thin clients with only 256 MiB RAM and 400 MHz are possible, though more RAM and faster processors are recommended.

    • La paginación de memoria por red esta habilitada por defecto, tiene un tamaño de 512Mb. Si necesita más, puede modificarlo desde la variable SIZE, en el archivo /etc/ltsp/nbdswapd.conf.

    • Si sus terminales tienen disco duro, se recomienda que sean utilizados para paginación, ya que resulta ser más rápida que la paginación por medio de la red.

  • For workstations, diskless workstations and standalone systems, 1500 MHz and 1024 MiB RAM are the absolute minimum requirements. For running modern webbrowsers and LibreOffice at least 2048 MiB RAM is recommended.

    • En estaciones de trabajo con poca memoria RAM, el verificador ortográfico podría causar que LibreOffice deje de funcionar si el espacio de intercambio es demasiado pequeño. Si esto ocurre frecuentemente, puede ser deshabilitado por los administradores del sistema.

  • El requerimiento mínimo de espacio depende del perfil que sea instalado.

    • combined main server + LTSP server: 70 GiB (plus additional space for user accounts).

    • LTSP server: 50 GiB.

    • Estación de trabajo, o independiente: 30 Gb

  • LTSP servers need two network cards when using the default network architecture:

    • eth0 conectada a la red principal (10.0.0.0/8),

    • eth1 is used for serving LTSP clients (192.168.0.0/24 as default), but others are possible.

  • Las laptops son estaciones de trabajo móviles, por lo que tienen los mismos requerimientos de las estaciones de trabajo regulares.

4.2. Hardware conocido que funciona

A list of tested hardware is provided at http://wiki.debian.org/DebianEdu/Hardware/ . This list is not nearly complete :)

http://wiki.debian.org/InstallingDebianOn es un esfuerzo para documentar el proceso de instalación, configuración y uso de Debian en hardware específico. Por lo tanto los potenciales compradores sabrán si su hardware es soportado y los propietarios podrán saber como obtener el máximo de sus equipos.

Una excelente base de datos sobre hardware soportado por Debian esta disponible en http://kmuto.jp/debian/hcl/.

5. Requerimientos para una instalación de red

5.1. Configuración por defecto

Se aplican las siguientes reglas cuando se usa la arquitectura de red por defecto:

  • Necesita exactamente, un servidor principal, el tjener.

  • Puede tener hasta cientos de estaciones de trabajo en la red principal.

  • You can have a lot of LTSP servers on the main network; two different subnets are preconfigured (DNS, DHCP) in LDAP, more can be added.

  • Puede tener cientos de clientes ligeros y/o estaciones de trabajo sin disco en cada red de servidores LTSP.

  • Puede tener cientos de otras computadoras que tendrán direcciones IP asignadas de manera dinámica.

  • Para acceder a Internet necesita un enrutador/pasarela (ver más abajo).

5.2. Enrutador de Internet

Un enrutador/pasarela conectado a Internet en la interfaz externa y con la dirección IP 10.0.0.1 y máscara de red 255.0.0.0 en la interfaz interna, es necesario para conectarse a internet.

El enrutador no debería ejecutar un servidor DHCP, puede ejecutar un servidor DNS, aunque no es necesario y no será usado.

In case you already have a router but are unable to configure it as needed (eg because you are not allowed to do so, or for technical reasons), an older computer with two network interfaces can be turned into a gateway between the existing network and the Debian Edu one.

A simple way is to install Debian Edu on this computer; select 'Minimal' as profile during installation.

After the installation:

  • Adjust the /etc/network/interfaces file.

  • Change the hostname permanently to 'gateway'.

  • Remove superfluous scripts.

  • Enable IP forwarding and NAT for the 10.0.0.0/8 network.

  • As an option install a firewall and / or a traffic shaping tool.

 #!/bin/sh
 # Turn a system with profile 'Minimal' into a gateway/firewall. 
 #
 sed -i 's/auto eth0/auto eth0 eth1/' /etc/network/interfaces
 sed -i '/eth1/ s/dhcp/static/' /etc/network/interfaces
 sed -i '/post-up/d' /etc/network/interfaces
 echo 'address 10.0.0.1' >> /etc/network/interfaces
 echo 'dns-nameservers 10.0.2.2' >> /etc/network/interfaces
 echo 'dns-domain intern' >> /etc/network/interfaces
 hostname -b gateway
 hostname > /etc/hostname
 rm -f /etc/dhcp/dhclient-exit-hooks.d/hostname
 rm -f /etc/dhcp/dhclient-exit-hooks.d/wpad-proxy-update
 rm -f /etc/dhcp/dhclient-exit-hooks.d/fetch-ldap-cert
 rm -f /etc/network/if-up.d/wpad-proxy-update
 sed -i 's/domain-name,//' /etc/dhcp/dhclient-debian-edu.conf
 sed -i 's/domain-search,//' /etc/dhcp/dhclient-debian-edu.conf
 service networking stop
 service networking start
 sed -i 's#NAT=#NAT="10.0.0.0/8"#' /etc/default/enable-nat
 service enable-nat restart
 # You might want a firewall (shorewall or ufw) and traffic shaping.
 #apt update
 #apt install shorewall
 # or
 #apt install ufw
 #apt install wondershaper  

If you need something for an embedded router or accesspoint we recommend using OpenWRT, though of course you can also use the original firmware. Using the original firmware is easier; using OpenWRT gives you more choices and control. Check the OpenWRT webpages for a list of supported hardware.

Es posible usar una configuración diferente de red (existe un proceso documentado para hacer esto), pero si usted no tiene una infraestructura de red preexistente, le recomendamos abstenerse de hacerlo, y mantener la configuración predeterminada de la arquitectura de red.

6. Instalación y opciones de descarga

6.1. Donde encontrar información adicional

We recommend that you read or at least take a look at the release notes for Debian Buster before you start installing a system for production use. There is more information about the Debian Buster release available in its installation manual.

Please give Debian Edu/Skolelinux a try, it should just work. :-)

It is recommended, though, to read the chapters about hardware and network requirements and about the architecture before starting to install a main server.

/!\ Be sure to also read the getting started chapter of this manual, as it explains how to log in for the first time.

6.2. Download the installation media for Debian Edu 10+edu0 Codename Buster

6.2.1. amd64 or i386

amd64 and i386 are the names of two Debian architectures for x86 CPUs, both are or have been build by AMD, Intel and other manufacturers. amd64 is a 64-bit architecture and i386 is a 32-bit architecture. New installations today should be done using amd64. i386 should only be used for old hardware.

6.2.2. netinst iso images for amd64 or i386

The netinst iso image can be used for installation from CD/DVD and USB flash drives and is available for two Debian architectures: amd64 or i386. As the name implies, internet access is required for the installation.

Once Buster has been released these images will be available for download from:

6.2.3. BD iso images for i386 or amd64

This ISO image is approximately 5 GB large and can be used for installation of amd64 or i386 machines, also without access to the Internet. Like the netinst image it can be installed on USB flash drives or disk media of sufficient size.

Once Buster has been released these images will be available for download from:

6.2.4. Verification of downloaded image files

Detailed instructions for verifying these images are part of the Debian-CD FAQ.

6.2.5. Sources

Sources are available from the Debian archive at the usual locations, several media are linked on http://get.debian.org/cdimage/release/current/source/

6.3. Solicite un CD / DVD por correo

For those without a fast Internet connection, we can offer a CD or DVD sent for the cost of the CD or DVD and shipping. Just send an email to cd@skolelinux.no and we will discuss the payment details (for shipping and media). :) Recuerde incluir la dirección a la que desea le sea envíado su CD / DVD dentro del email.

6.4. Instalacion de Debian Edu

When you do a Debian Edu installation, you have a few options to choose from. Don't be afraid; there aren't many. We have done a good job of hiding the complexity of Debian during the installation and beyond. However, Debian Edu is Debian, and if you want there are more than 57,000 packages to choose from and a billion configuration options. For the majority of our users, our defaults should be fine. Please note: if LTSP is intended to be used, choose a lightweight desktop environment.

6.4.1. Main server installation scenarios

  1. Typical school or home network with Internet access through a router providing DHCP:

    • Installation of a main server is possible, but after reboot there will be no internet access (due to primary network interface IP 10.0.2.2/8).

    • See the Internet router chapter for details how to set up a gateway if it is not possible to configure an existing one as needed.

    • Connect all components like shown in the architecture chapter.

    • The main server should have Internet connection once bootet the first time in the correct environment.

  2. Typical school or institution network, similar to the one above, but with proxy use required.

    • Add 'debian-edu-expert' to the kernel command line; see further below for details how this is done.

    • Some additional questions must be answered, the proxy server related one included.

  3. Network with router/gateway IP 10.0.0.1/8 (which does not provide a DHCP server) and Internet access:

    • As soon as the automatic network configuration fails (due to missing DHCP), choose manual network configuration.

      • Enter 10.0.2.2/8 as host IP

      • Enter 10.0.0.1 as gateway IP

      • Enter 8.8.8.8 as nameserver IP unless you know better

    • The main server should just work after the first boot.

  4. Offline (no Internet connection):

    • Use the BD ISO image.

    • Make sure all (real/virtual) network cables are unplugged.

    • Choose 'Do not configure the network at this time' (after DHCP failed to configure the network and you pressed 'Continue').

    • Update the system once bootet the first time in the correct environment with Internet access.

6.4.2. Desktop choice

  • KDE and GNOME both have good language support, but too big a footprint for both older computers and for LTSP clients.

  • MATE is lighter than the two above, but is missing good language support for several countries.

  • LXDE has the smallest footprint and supports 35 languages.

  • LXQt is a lightweight desktop (language support similar to LXDE) with a more modern look and feel (based on Qt just like KDE).

  • Xfce has a slightly bigger footprint than LXDE but a very good language support (106 languages).

Debian Edu as an international project has chosen to use Xfce as the default desktop; see below how to set a different one.

6.4.3. Modular installation

  • When installing a system with profile Workstation included, a lot of education related programs are installed. To install only the basic profile, remove the desktop=xxxx kernel command line param before starting the installation; see further below for details how this is done. This allows one to install a site specific system and could be used to speed up test installations.

  • Please note: If you want to install a desktop afterwards, don't use the Debian Edu meta-packages like e.g. education-desktop-mate because these would pull in all education related programs; rather install e.g. task-mate-desktop instead. One or more of the new school level related meta-packages education-preschool, education-primaryschool, education-secondaryschool, education-highschool could be installed to match the use case.

  • For details about Debian Edu meta-packages, see the Debian Edu packages overview page.

6.4.4. Installation types and options

Installer boot menu on 64-bit Hardware

Menú de carga del instalador

Instalador gráfico usa el instalador GTK donde puede usar el ratón.

Install uses text mode.

Advanced options > gives a sub menu with more detailed options to choose.

Help gives some hints on using the installer; see screenshot below.

Back.. brings back to the main menu.

Graphical expert install gives access to all available questions, mouse usable.

Graphical rescue mode makes this install medium become a rescue disk for emergency tasks.

Instalación automática gráfica necesita un archivo preconfigurado.

Instalación experta le da acceso a todas las opciones disponibles en modo texto.

Rescue mode text mode; makes this install medium become a rescue disk for emergency tasks.

Automated install text mode; needs a preseed file.

Help screen

Pantalla de ayuda del instalador

This Help screen is self explaining and enables the <F>-keys on the keyboard for getting more detailed help on the topics described.

Add or change boot parameters for installations

In both cases, boot options can be edited by pressing the TAB key in the boot menu; the screenshot shows the command line for Graphical install.

Edit command line options

  • You can use an existing HTTP proxy service on the network to speed up the installation of the main server profile from CD. Add e.g. mirror/http/proxy=http://10.0.2.2:3128 as an additional boot parameter.

  • Si ya tiene instalador el perfil de servidor principal en una computadora, futuras instalaciones se podrían hacer vía PXE, ya que utilizará automáticamente el proxy del servidor principal.

  • To install the GNOME desktop instead of the default Xfce desktop, replace xfce with gnome in the desktop=xfce parameter.

  • To install the LXDE desktop instead, use desktop=lxde.

  • To install the LXQt desktop instead, use desktop=lxqt.

  • To install the KDE Plasma desktop instead, use desktop=kde.

  • And to install the MATE desktop instead, use desktop=mate.

6.4.5. El proceso de instalación

Remember the system requirements and make sure you have at least two network cards (NICs) if you plan on setting up an LTSP server.

  • Choose a language (for the installation and the installed system).

  • Elige un lugar que normalmente sería el lugar donde vives.

  • Choose a keyboard keymap (the country's default is usually fine).

  • Elige el(los) perfil(es) de la siguiente lista:

    • Main Server

      • This is the main server (tjener) for your school providing all services pre-configured to work out of the box. You must install only one main server per school! This profile does not include a graphical user interface. If you want a graphical user interface, then select Workstation or LTSP Server in addition to this one.

    • Workstation

      • Una computadora que inicia desde su disco duro, y funciona con todos los programas y dispositivos localmente como una computadora común, pero el usuario será autenticado por el servidor principal, donde los archivos de los usuarios y las configuraciones para escritorio son guardados.

    • Roaming workstation

      • Same as workstation but capable of authentication using cached credentials, meaning it can be used outside the school network. The users' files and profiles are stored on the local disk. For single user notebooks and laptops this profile should be selected and not 'Workstation' or 'Standalone' as suggested in earlier releases.

    • LTSP Server

      • A thin client (and diskless workstation) server, is called an LTSP server. Clients without hard drives boot and run software from this server. This computer needs two network interfaces, a lot of memory, and ideally more than one processor or core. See the chapter about networked clients for more information on this subject. Choosing this profile also enables the workstation profile (even if it is not selected) - an LTSP server can always be used as a workstation, too.

    • Standalone

      • Una computadora común que puede funcionar sin un servidor (esto quiere decir, que no necesita estar en la red). Incluye laptops.

    • Minimal

      • Este perfil instalará los paquetes básicos y configurará la computadora para integrarse en la red Debian Edu, pero sin ningún servicio ni aplicaciones. Es útil como plataforma para servicios simples manualmente migrados desde el servidor principal.

    The Main Server, Workstation and LTSP Server profiles are preselected. These profiles can be installed on one machine together if you want to install a so called combined main server. This means the main server will be an LTSP server and also be used as a workstation. This is the default choice, since we assume most people will install via PXE afterwards. Please note that you must have 2 network cards installed in a machine which is going to be installed as a combined main server or as an LTSP server to become useful after the installation.

  • Seleccione "si" o "no" para particionamiento automático. Este consciente que al seleccionar sí, ¡se eliminarán todos los datos en el disco duro!, al seleccionar no, se requerirá más trabajo y necesitará que las particiones requeridas sean creadas y tengan suficiente espacio.

  • Please say "yes" to submitting information to https://popcon.debian.org/ to allow us to know which packages are popular and should be kept for future releases. Although you don't have to, it is a simple way for you to help. :)

  • Wait. If the selected profiles include LTSP Server then the installer will spend quite some time at the end, "Finishing the installation - Running debian-edu-profile-udeb..."

  • Después de introducir la contraseña de root, se le solicitará crear una cuenta de usuario normal "para tareas no administrativas". Para Debian Edu esta cuenta de usuario es muy importante: es la cuenta que se usará para administrar la red Skolelinux.

    /!\ The password for this user must have a length of at least 5 characters and must differ from the username - otherwise login will not be possible (even though a shorter password and also a password matching the username will be accepted by the installer).

  • Sonríe :)

6.4.6. Notas en algunas características

6.4.6.1. Nota sobre equipos portátiles.

Most likely you will want to use the 'Roaming workstation' profile (see above). Be aware that all data is stored locally (so take some extra care over backups) and login credentials are cached (so after a password change, logins may require your old password if you have not connected your laptop to the network and logged in with the new password).

6.4.6.2. A note on USB flash drive / Blu-ray disc image installs

After you install from the USB flash drive / Blu-ray disc image, /etc/apt/sources.list will only contain sources from that image. If you have an Internet connection, we strongly suggest adding the following lines to it so that available security updates can be installed:

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster main 
deb http://security.debian.org/ buster/updates main 
6.4.6.3. Nota acerca de de la instalación con CD

Una instalación por red (que es el tipo de instalación que ofrece nuestro CD) tomará algunos paquetes del CD y el resto lo tomará de Internet. El monto de paquetes tomados desde la red varia de perfil en perfil pero se mantiene menor a un gigabyte (al menos que elija instalar todos los escritorios posibles). Una vez que tiene instalado el servidor principal (ya sea un servidor principal o un servidor combinado), futuras instalaciones usarán el proxy para prevenir la descarga de los mismos paquetes muchas veces desde Internet.

6.4.6.4. Notes on LTSP Server installations using only Thin-Clients

Providing the kernel boot parameter edu-skip-ltsp-make-client makes it possible to skip one step which converts the LTSP chroot from a thin-client chroot into a combined thin-client/diskless workstation chroot.

This is useful in certain situations, such as if you want a pure thin client chroot or if there is already a diskless chroot on another server, which can be rsynced. For these situations skipping this step will cut down the installation time considerably.

Excepto por el extenso tiempo de instalación, no hay problema en crear un chroot combinado y por eso se hace de forma predeterminada.

6.4.7. Instalación utilizando memorias USB lugar de CD / Blu-ray

It is possible to directly copy a CD/BD .iso image to USB flash drives (also known as "USB sticks") and boot from them. Simply execute a command like this, just adapting the file and device name to your needs:

sudo cp debian-edu-amd64-XXX.iso /dev/sdX

To determine the value of X, run this command before and after the USB device has been inserted:

lsblk -p

Please note that copying will take quite some time.

Dependiendo de la imágen seleccionada, la unidad USB se comportará como un CD o Blu-ray.

6.4.8. Instalación a través de la red (PXE) e inicio de estaciones sin disco.

Para este método de instalación es necesario que el servidor principal esté encendido. Cuando los clientes cargan a través de la red principal, un nuevo menú PXE con un instalador y opciones de selección de carga se mostrará. Si la instalación PXE falla con un mensaje de error mencionando que un archivo XXX.bin no se encuentra, es más probable que la tarjeta de red del cliente requiera un firmware no libre. En este caso el initrd del instalador de Debian debe ser modificado. Esto se puede lograr ejecutando el comando /usr/share/debian-edu-config/tools/pxe-addfirmware en el servidor.

This is how the PXE menu looks with the Main-Server profile only:

width=400

This is how the PXE menu looks with the Main Server and LTSP Server profiles:

width=400

To install a desktop environment of your choice instead of the default one, press TAB and edit the kernel boot options (like explained above).

Esta configuración permite iniciar a las estaciones sin disco y clientes ligeros a través de la red principal. A diferencia de las estaciones de trabajo, las estaciones de trabajo sin disco no necesitan ser agregadas a LDAP con GOsa², pero pueden agregarse, si necesita forzar el nombre del host.

Más información acerca de los clientes de red puede ser encontrada en el capítulo clientes de red.

6.4.8.1. Modificar instalaciones PXE

La instalación PXE utiliza un archivo de preconfiguración para debian-installer, que puede ser modificado y solicitar más paquetes para instalar.

Una línea como esta debe ser agregada atjener:/etc/debian-edu/www/debian-edu-install.dat

d-i    pkgsel/include string my-extra-package(s)

La instalación PXE usa el archivo /var/lib/tftpboot/debian-edu/install.cfg y el archivo de preconfiguración /etc/debian-edu/www/debian-edu-install.dat. Estos archivos pueden modificarse para ser ajustados a la configuración usada durante la instalación y así evitar las preguntas cuando se realicen instalaciones por red. Otra manera de lograr esto es agregar configuraciones extras a los archivos /etc/debian-edu/pxeinstall.conf y /etc/debian-edu/www/debian-edu-install.dat.local y ejecutar /usr/sbin/debian-edu-pxeinstall para actualizar los archivos generados.

Further information can be found in the manual of the Debian Installer.

Para desactivar o cambiar el uso del proxy cuando instale vía PXE, necesita cambiar las lineas que contengan mirror/http/proxy, mirror/ftp/proxy y preseed/early_command en el archivo tjener:/etc/debian-edu/www/debian-edu-install.dat . Para desactivar el uso de proxy cuando instale, anteponga el signo '#' al inicio de las primeras dos lineas y elimine "export http_proxy="http://webcache:3128"; " de la última linea.

Algunas configuraciones no pueden preconfigurarse porque son necesiarias antes que el archivo de preconfiguración sea descargado. Estas son configuradas en los argumentos de carga PXElinux-based disponibles en /var/lib/tftproot/debian-edu/install.cfg. Idioma, disposición del teclados y escritorio son algunas de estas configuraciones.

6.4.9. Imágenes personalizadas

Creating custom CDs, DVDs or Blu-ray discs can be quite easy since we use the Debian Installer, which has a modular design and other nice features. Preseeding allows you to define answers to the questions normally asked.

So all you need to do is to create a preseeding file with your answers (this is described in the appendix of the Debian Installer manual) and remaster the CD/DVD.

6.5. Captura de pantalla del paseo

El modo de texto y modo gráfico de instalación son idénticos, sólo la apariencia es diferente. El modo gráfico le ofrece la oportunidad de utilizar un ratón y por supuesto, el modo gráfico se ve mucho mejor y más moderno. A menos que el hardware presente problemas con el modo gráfico, no hay razón para no usarlo.

So here is a screenshot tour through a graphical 64-bit Main Server + Workstation + LTSP Server installation and how it looks at the first boot of the main server, a PXE boot on the workstation network and on the LTSP client network:

./debian-edu-buster-manual-images/22-Tjener_GRUB_boot_menu.png

02-select_a_language.png

03-select_your_location.png

04-Configure_the_keyboard.png

05-Detect_and_mount_CD-ROM.png

06-Load_installer_components_from_CD.png

07-Detect_network_hardware.png

08-Choose_Debian_Edu_profile.png

09-Really_use_the_automatic_partitioning_tool.png

09-Really_use_the_automatic_partitioning_tool.png

11-Participate_in_the_package_usage_survey.png

12a-Set_up_users_and_passwords.png

12a-Set_up_users_and_passwords.png

12b-Set_up_users_and_passwords.png

12c-Set_up_users_and_passwords.png

12d-Setting-up-the-partitioner.png

13-Install the base system.png

14-Select_and_install_software.png

17-Select_and_install_software.png

18-Build LTSP chroot.png

19-Install_the_GRUB_boot_loader_on_a_hard_disk.png

20-Finish_the_Installation.png

21-Finish_the_Installation-Installation_complete.png

22-Tjener_GRUB_boot_menu.png

Inicio de sesión KDM en tjener

KDE y el navegador

Escritorio KDE

./debian-edu-buster-manual-images/28-Diskless-WS-GRUB_Boot_menu-PXE.png

Inicio de sesión de estaciones sin disco

7. Iniciando

7.1. Pasos mínimos para iniciar

Durante la instalación del servidor principal, fue creada una primera cuenta de usuario. A continuación, esta cuenta se llamará "primer usuario". Esta cuenta es especial, ya que no existe una cuenta de Samba (puede agregarse vía GOsa²), los permisos para el directorio del usuario están establecidos en 700 (es necesario ejecutar chmod o+x ~ para que el sitio web personal sea accesible), el primer usuario puede usar sudo para convertirse en root.

See the information about Debian Edu specific file system access configuration before adding users; adjust to your site's policy if needed.

Después de la instalación, las primeras cosas que necesita hacer como usuario son:

  1. Log into the server.

  2. Add users with GOsa².

  3. Agregar estaciones de trabajo con GOsa² - clientes ligeros y estaciones de trabajo sin disco pueden ser usados directamente sin ser agregados.

Adding users and workstations is described in detail below, so please read this chapter completely. It covers how to perform these minimum steps correctly as well as other stuff that everybody will probably need to do.

There is additional information available elsewhere in this manual: the New features in Buster chapter should be read by everyone who is familiar with previous releases. And for those upgrading from a previous release, make sure to read the Upgrades chapter.

/!\ If generic DNS traffic is blocked out of your network and you need to use some specific DNS server to look up internet hosts, you need to tell the DNS server to use this server as its "forwarder". Update /etc/bind/named.conf.options and specify the IP address of the DNS server to use.

El capítulo HowTo describe más trucos, pistas y algunas preguntas de uso frecuente.

Inicio de sesión de Debian Edu

7.1.1. Servicios que corren en el servidor principal

Hay varios servicios ejecutándose en el servidor principal que se pueden gestionar con una interfaz web. Describiremos estos servicios a continuación.

7.2. Introducción a GOsa²

GOsa²es una herramienta de administración web, que le ayudará a administrar algunas de las partes importantes de su configuración de Debian Edu. Podrá administrar (agregar, modificar o eliminar) estos principales grupos:

  • Administración de usuarios

  • Administración de grupos

  • Administración de grupos de red NIS

  • Administración de computadoras

  • Administración DNS

  • Administración DHCP

For GOsa² access you need the Skolelinux main server and a (client) system with a web browser installed which can be the main server itself if it was installed as a so called combined server (Main Server + LTSP Server + Workstation profiles). If all of the mentioned before is not available, see: Installing a graphical environment on the main-server to use GOsa².

Desde un navegador web, utilice https://www/gosa para acceder a GOsa² e ingrese por primera vez.

  • If you are using a new Debian Edu Buster machine, the site certificate will be known by the browser.

  • Caso contrario, obtendrá un mensaje de error sobre certificado SSL equivocado. Si sabe que solamente usted se encuentra conectado a la red, acepte e ignórelo.

Para información general sobre GOsa², revise: https://oss.gonicus.de/labs/gosa/wiki/documentation

7.2.1. GOsa² Login plus Overview

GOsa² overview page after login as the first user

After logging in to GOsa² you will see the overview page of GOsa².

Next, you can choose a task in the menu or click any of the task icons on the overview page. For navigation, we recommend using the menu on the left side of the screen, as it will stay visible there on all administration pages offered by GOsa².

In Debian Edu, account, group, and system information is stored in an LDAP directory. This data is used not only by the main server, but also by the (diskless) workstations, the LTSP servers and the Windows machines on the network. With LDAP, account information about students, teachers, etc. only needs to be entered once. After information has been provided in LDAP, the information will be available to all systems on the whole Skolelinux network.

GOsa² es una herramienta de administración que usa LDAP para almacenar su información y provee una estructura jerárquica por departamento. Para cada "departamento" puede agregar cuentas de usuario, grupos, sistemas, grupos de red y demás. En dependencia de la estructura de su institución, puede usar la estructura en GOsa²/LDAP para transferir su estructura organizacional al árbol de datos LDAP del servidor principal Debian Edu.

A default Debian Edu main server installation currently provides two "departments": Teachers and Students, plus the base level of the LDAP tree. Student accounts are intended to be added to the "Students" department, teachers to the "Teachers" department; systems (servers, Skolelinux workstations, Windows machines, printers etc.) are currently added to the base level. Find your own scheme for customising this structure. (You can find an example how to create users in year groups, with common home directories for each group in the HowTo/AdvancedAdministration chapter of this manual.)

En dependencia de la tarea que desee realizar (administrar usuarios, grupos, sistemas, etc) GOsa² le mostrará una vista diferente en el departamento seleccionado (o el nivel básico).

7.3. Gestión de usuarios con GOsa²

First, click on "Users" in the left navigation menu. The right side of the screen will change to show a table with department folders for "Students" and "Teachers" and the account of the GOsa² Administrator (the first created user). Above this table you can see a field called Base that allows you to navigate through your tree structure (move your mouse over that area and a drop-down menu will appear) and to select a base folder for your intended operations (e.g. adding a new user).

7.3.1. Agregar usuarios

Al lado de ese elemento de navegación de árbol se puede ver el menú "Acciones". Mueva su ratón sobre este ítem y un submenú aparecerá en la pantalla; seleccione "Crear", y luego "Usuario". Desde aquí será guíado por el asistente de creación de usuarios.

  • Lo más importante es el agregar un perfil (nuevoestudiante o nuevoprofesor) y el nombre completo del usuario (ver imágen)

  • As you follow the wizard, you will see that GOsa² generates a username automatically based on the real name. It automatically chooses a username that doesn't exist yet, so multiple users with the same full name are not a problem. Note that GOsa² can generate invalid usernames if the full name contains non-ASCII characters.

  • If you don't like the generated username you can select another username offered in the drop-down box, but you do not have a free choice here in the wizard. (If you want to be able to edit the proposed username, open /etc/gosa/gosa.conf with an editor and add allowUIDProposalModification="true" as an additional option to the "location definition".)

  • When the wizard has finished, you are presented with the GOsa² screen for your new user object. Use the tabs at the top to check the completed fields.

After you have created the user (no need to customise fields the wizard has left empty for now), click on the "Ok" button in the bottom-right corner.

As the last step GOsa² will ask for a password for the new user. Type that in twice and then click "Set password" in the bottom-right corner. /!\ Some characters may not be allowed as part of the password.

If all went well, you can now see the new user in the user list table. You should now be able to log in with that username on any Skolelinux machine within your network.

7.3.2. Buscar, modificar y borrar usuarios

Filterbox

To modify or delete a user, use GOsa² to browse the list of users on your system. On the middle of the screen you may open the "Filter" box, a search tool provided by GOsa². If you don't know the exact location of your user account in your tree, change to the base level of the GOsa²/LDAP tree and search there with the option marked "Search in subtrees".

When using the "Filter" box, results will immediately appear in the middle of the text in the table list view. Every line represents a user account and the items farthest to the right on each line are little icons that provide actions for you: edit user, lock account, set password and remove user.

Una nueva página se mostrará donde podrá modificar la información pertinente al usuario directamente, cambiar su contraseña y modificar la lista de grupos a los que pertenece.

Editar datos de usuarios

7.3.3. Establecer contraseñas

Los estudiantes pueden cambiar sus contraseñas ingresando a GOsa² son sus propios usuarios. Para facilitar el acceso a GOsa², un acceso directo llamado Gosa se encuentra en el menú escritorio (o en configuración del sistema). Una sesión de estudiante tendrá una versión mínima de GOsa² que solamente le brinda acceso a la hoja de información del usuario y a la opción de cambio de contraseña.

Los profesores que ingresan con sus propios nombres de usuarios, tienen privilegios especiales en GOsa². Ellos poseen una vista con más privilegios y pueden cambiar la contraseña de todas las cuentas de estudiantes. Esto puede ser muy practico durante clases.

Para establecer una nueva contraseña para el usuario

  1. Busque el usuario que desea modificar, tal como se explicó anteriormente

  2. Haga clic en la flecha al final del usuario

  3. En la siguiente página, puede escribir la nueva contraseña

Establecer contraseñas de usuario

¡Tenga cuidado con las consecuencias a la seguridad, debido a la facilidad de las contraseñas!

7.3.4. Administración avanzada de usuarios

Es posible crear usuarios masivamente con GOsa² usando un archivo CSV, que puede ser creado con un software de hoja de cálculo (localc por ejemplo). Se deben proveer, al menos, datos para los siguientes campos: uid, last name (sn), first name (givenName) y password. Asegúrese de no duplicar datos en el campo uid. Note que la revisión de duplicados debe incluir los registros ya existentes en LDAP (que puede ser obtenido ejecutando getent passwd | grep tjener/home | cut -d":" -f1 en la linea de comando).

These are the format guidelines for such a CSV file (GOsa² is quite intolerant about them):

  • Use "," como separador de campos

  • Do not use quotes

  • El archivo CSV no debe contener un encabezado (no debe tener el nombre de la columna)

  • El orden de los campos no es relevante, y puede ser definido en GOsa² durante la importación masiva

Los pasos para importe masivo son:

  1. Haga clic en el enlace "LDAP Manager" en el menú de navegación a la izquierda

  2. Haga clic en la pestaña "Importar" al lado derecho de la pantalla

  3. Busque en su disco local el archivo CSV con la lista de usuarios que desea importar

  4. Eliga una plantilla de usuarios disponible que se aplicará durante la importación masiva (como NewTeacher o NewStudent)

  5. Haga clic en el botón "Importar" en la esquina inferior derecha

Es una buena idea el hacer pruebas antes, de preferencia con un archivo CSV con usuarios ficticios, que pueden ser eliminados después.

Same applies to the password management module, which allows to reset a lot of passwords using a CSV file or to re-generate new passwords for users belonging to a special LDAP subtree.

Establecer contraseñas

7.4. Gestión de usuarios con GOsa²

crear un grupo

crear un grupo

La gestión de grupos es muy similar a la gestión de usuarios.

Puede ingresar un nombre y una descripción por grupo. Asegúrese de elegir el nivel correcto en el árbol LDAP cuando cree un nuevo grupo.

By default, the appropriate Samba group isn't created. If you forgot to check the Samba group option during group creation, you can modify the group later on.

Adding users to a newly created group takes you back to the user list, where you most probably would like to use the filter box to find users. Check the LDAP tree level, too.

Los grupos incluidos en el manejo de grupos, son también grupos regulares de Unix, así que pueden utilizarse también para los permisos de archivos.

7.4.1. Gestión de grupos en la linea de comando

# List existing group mapping between UNIX and Windows groups.
net groupmap list
 
# Add your new or otherwise missing groups:
net groupmap add unixgroup=NEW_GROUP type=domain ntgroup="NEW_GROUP"\
                 comment="DESCRIPTION OF NEW GROUP"

7.5. Administración de equipos con GOsa²

Machine management basically allows you to manage all networked devices in your Debian Edu network. Every machine added to the LDAP directory using GOsa² has a hostname, an IP address, a MAC address and a domain name (which is usually "intern"). For a fuller description of the Debian Edu architecture see the architecture chapter of this manual.

Diskless workstations and thin-clients work out-of-the-box when connected to the main network. Only workstations with disks have to be added with GOsa², but all can.

To add a machine, use the GOsa² main menu, systems, add. You can use an IP address/hostname from the preconfigured address space 10.0.0.0/8. Currently there are only two predefined fixed addresses: 10.0.2.2 (tjener) and 10.0.0.1 (gateway). The addresses from 10.0.16.20 to 10.0.31.254 (roughly 10.0.16.0/20 or 4000 hosts) are reserved for DHCP and are assigned dynamically.

To assign a host with the MAC address 52:54:00:12:34:10 a static IP address in GOsa² you have to enter the MAC address, the hostname and the IP; alternatively you might click the Propose ip button which will show the first free fixed address in 10.0.0.0/8, most probably something like 10.0.0.2 if you add the first machine this way. It may be better to first think about your network: for example you could use 10.0.0.x with x>10 and x<50 for servers, and x>100 for workstations. Don't forget to activate the just added system. With the exception of the main server all systems will then have a matching icon.

If the machines have booted as thin clients/diskless workstations or have been installed using any of the networked profiles, the sitesummary2ldapdhcp script can be used to automatically add machines to GOsa². For simple machines it will work out of the box, for machines with more than one mac address the actually used one has to be chosen, sitesummary2ldapdhcp -h shows usage information. Please note, that the IP addresses shown after usage of sitesummary2ldapdhcp belong to the dynamic IP range. These systems can then be modified to suit your network: rename each new system, activate DHCP and DNS, add it to netgroups (see screenshot below for recommended netgroups), reboot the system afterwards. The following screenshots show how this looks in practice:

root@tjener:~# sitesummary2ldapdhcp -a -i ether-22:11:33:44:55:ff
info: Create GOsa machine for am-2211334455ff.intern [10.0.16.21] id ether-22:11:33:44:55:ff.
 
Enter password if you want to activate these changes, and ^c to abort.
 
Connecting to LDAP as cn=admin,ou=ldap-access,dc=skole,dc=skolelinux,dc=no
enter password: ********
root@tjener:~#

GOsa² systems listing

Host details

Modify host

Add netgroup

A cronjob updating DNS runs every hour; su -c ldap2bind can be used to trigger the update manually.

7.5.1. Buscar y eliminar computadoras

Buscar computadoras para ser eliminadas, es bastante similar a buscar usuarios para eliminar, por lo que esa información no se repite aquí.

7.5.2. Modificar equipos existentes / Manejo del grupo de red

After adding a machine to the LDAP tree using GOsa², you can modify its properties using the search functionality and clicking on the machine name (as you would with users).

The format of these system entries is similar to the one you already know from modifying user entries, but the fields mean different things in this context.

For example, adding a machine to a NetGroup does not modify the file access or command execution permissions for that machine or the users logged in to that machine; instead it restricts the services that machine can use on your main-server.

La instalación por defecto proporciona la Grupo de Red

  • cups-queue-autoflush-hosts

  • cups-queue-autoreenable-hosts

  • fs-autoresize-hosts

  • ltsp-server-hosts

  • netblock-hosts

  • printer-hosts

  • server-hosts

  • shutdown-at-night-hosts

  • shutdown-at-night-wakeup-hosts-blacklist

  • winstation-hosts

  • workstation-hosts

Actualmente, la funcionalidad de NetGroup se utiliza para

  • NFS.

    • The home directories are exported by the main-server to be mounted by the workstations and the LTSP servers. For security reasons, only hosts within the workstation-hosts, ltsp-server-hosts and server-hosts NetGroups can mount the exported NFS shares. So it is rather important to remember to configure these kinds of machines properly in the LDAP tree using GOsa² and to configure them to use static IP addresses from LDAP.

      /!\ Remember to configure workstations and LTSP servers properly with GOsa², or your users won't be able to access their home directories. Diskless workstations and thin clients don't use NFS, so they don't need to be configured.

  • fs-autoresize

    • Los equipos con Debian Edu en este grupo, automáticamente acondicionarán las particiones LVM que estén próximas a quedarse sin espacio disponible.

  • shutdown at night

    • Los equipos con Debian Edu en este grupo, se apagarán automáticamente por las noches para ahorrar energía.

  • CUPS (cups-queue-autoflush-hosts and cups-queue-autoreenable-hosts)

    • Debian Edu machines in these groups will automatically flush all print queues every night, and re-enable any disabled print queue every hour.

  • netblock-hosts

    • Debian Edu machines in this group will be allowed to connect to machines only on the local network. Combined with web proxy restrictions this might be used during exams.

Another important part of machine configuration is the 'Samba host' flag (in the 'Host information' area). If you plan to add existing Windows systems to the Skolelinux Samba domain, you need to add the Windows host to the LDAP tree and set this flag to be able to join the Windows host to the domain. For more information about adding Windows hosts to the Skolelinux network see the HowTo/NetworkClients chapter of this manual.

8. Printer Management

For Printer Management point your web browser to https://www:631. This is the normal CUPS management interface where you can add/delete/modify your printers and can clean up the printing queue. By default only root is allowed but this can be changed: Open /etc/cups/cups-files.conf with an editor and add one or more valid group names matching your site policy to the line containing SystemGroup lpadmin. Existing GOsa² groups that might be used are gosa-admins and printer-admins (both with the first user as member), teachers and jradmins (no members after installation).

8.1. Use printers attached to workstations

The package p910nd is installed by default on a system with the Workstation profile.

  • Edit /etc/default/p910nd like this (USB printer):

    • P910ND_OPTS="-f /dev/usb/lp0"

    • P910ND_START=1

  • Configure the printer using the web interface https://www.intern:631; choose network printer type AppSocket/HP JetDirect (for all printers regardless of brand or model) and set socket://<workstation ip>:9100 as connection URI.

9. Sincronización del reloj

The default configuration in Debian Edu is to keep the clocks on all machines synchronous but not necessarily correct. NTP is used to update the time. The clocks will be synchronised with an external source by default. This can cause machines to keep the external Internet connection open if it is created when used.

/!\ If you use dialup or ISDN and pay per minute, you want to change this default setting.

To disable synchronisation with an external clock, the file /etc/ntp.conf on the main-server and all clients and LTSP chroots need to be modified. Add comment ("#") marks in front of the server entries. After this, the NTP server needs to be restarted by running /etc/init.d/ntp restart as root. To test if a machine is using the external clock sources, run ntpq -c lpeer.

10. Redimensionando particiones completas

Because of a possible bug with automatic partitioning, some partitions might be too full after installation. To extend these partitions, run debian-edu-fsautoresize -n as root. See the "Resizing Partitions" HowTo in the administration HowTo chapter for more information.

11. Maintenance

11.1. Actualizar el software

This section explains how to use apt-get upgrade.

Using apt-get is really simply. To update a system you need to execute two commands on the command line as root: apt-get update (which updates the lists of available packages) and apt-get upgrade (which upgrades the packages for which an upgrade is available).

It is also a good idea to upgrade using the C locale to get English output which in cases of problems is more likely to produce results in search engines.

LC_ALL=C apt-get update ; LC_ALL=C ltsp-chroot apt-get update
LC_ALL=C apt-get upgrade -y
LC_ALL=C ltsp-chroot -m apt-get upgrade -y
cf-agent -D installation # On upgrades of debian-edu-config
ltsp-chroot -m cf-agent -D installation  # On upgrades of debian-edu-config
ltsp-update-kernels # If a new kernel was installed
ltsp-update-image

/!\ After upgrading the debian-edu-config package, changed Cfengine configuration files might be available. Run ls -ltr /etc/cfengine3/debian-edu/ to check if this is the case. To apply the changes, run cf-agent -D installation.

/!\ It is important to run ltsp-update-kernels if a new kernel was installed in the LTSP chroot, to keep the kernel and kernel modules in sync. The kernel is handed out via TFTP when the machine does PXE boot, and the kernel modules are fetched from the LTSP chroot.

/!\ Run ltsp-update-image to re-generate the NBD image(s).

También es buena idea instalar cron-apt y apt-listchanges y configurarlos para que le envíe corre electrónico.

cron-apt will notify you once a day via email about any packages that can be upgraded. It does not install these upgrades, but does download them (usually in the night), so you don't have to wait for the download when you do apt-get upgrade.

Automatic installation of updates can be done easily if desired, it just needs the unattended-upgrades package to be installed and configured as described on wiki.debian.org/UnattendedUpgrades.

apt-listchanges can send new changelog entries to you via email, or alternatively display them in the terminal when running apt or apt-get.

11.1.1. Mantente informado sobre actualizaciones de seguridad

Running cron-apt as described above is a good way to learn when security updates are available for installed packages. Another way to stay informed about security updates is to subscribe to the Debian security-announce mailinglist, which has the benefit of also telling you what the security update is about. The downside (compared to cron-apt) is that it also includes information about updates for packages which aren't installed.

11.2. Gestión de las copias de seguridad

For backup management point your browser to https://www/slbackup-php. Please note that you need to access this site via SSL, since you have to enter the root password there. If you try to access this site without using SSL it will fail.

/!\ Note: the site will only work if you temporarily allow ssh root login on the backup server (main server 'tjener' by default).

By default tjener will back up /skole/tjener/home0, /etc/, /root/.svk and LDAP to /skole/backup which is under the LVM. If you only want to have spare copies of things (in case you delete them) this setup should be fine for you.

/!\ Be aware that this backup scheme doesn't protect you from failing hard drives.

If you want to back up your data to an external server, a tape device or another hard drive you'll have to modify the existing configuration a bit.

Si quieres restaurar un directorio, la mejor opción es usar la línea de comandos:

$ sudo rdiff-backup -r <date>  \
   /skole/backup/tjener/skole/tjener/home0/user \
   /skole/tjener/home0/user_<date>

Esto pondrá el contenido de /skole/tjener/home0/user para <date> en el directorio /skole/tjener/home0/user_<date>.

Si desea restablecer un archivo, debería de ser capaz de seleccionar el archivo (y la versión) de la interfaz web y descargar solamente ese archivo.

Si desea deshacerse de los respaldos viejos, elija "Maintenance" en el menú de la página respaldo y seleccione la instantánea más vieja que desee conservar:

11.3. Monitorización del servidor

11.3.1. Munin

Los reportes de Munin están disponible en https://www/munin/. Le provee gráficos de medición en una vista diaría, semanal, mensual y anual. Además le provee ayuda al administrador de sistemas al momento de buscar cuellos de botella y el origen de problemas en el sistema.

The list of machines being monitored using Munin is generated automatically, based on the list of hosts reporting to sitesummary. All hosts with the package munin-node installed are registered for Munin monitoring. It will normally take one day from a machine being installed until Munin monitoring starts, because of the order the cron jobs are executed. To speed up the process, run sitesummary-update-munin as root on the sitesummary server (normally the main server). This will update the /etc/munin/munin.conf file.

The set of measurements being collected is automatically generated on each machine using the munin-node-configure program which probes the plugins available from /usr/share/munin/plugins/ and symlinks the relevant ones to /etc/munin/plugins/.

Information about Munin is available from http://munin-monitoring.org/.

11.3.2. Icinga

Icinga system and service monitoring is available from https://www/icinga/. The set of machines and services being monitored is automatically generated using information collected by the sitesummary system. The machines with the profile Main-server and LTSP-server receive full monitoring, while workstations and thin clients receive simple monitoring. To enable full monitoring on a workstation, install the nagios-nrpe-server package on the workstation.

The username is icingaadmin and the default password is skolelinux. For security reasons, avoid using the same password as root. To change the password you can run the following command as root:

htpasswd /etc/icinga/htpasswd.users icingaadmin

By default Icinga does not send email. This can be changed by replacing notify-by-nothing with host-notify-by-email and notify-by-email in the file /etc/icinga/sitesummary-template-contacts.cfg.

The Icinga configuration file used is /etc/icinga/sitesummary.cfg. The sitesummary cron job generates /var/lib/sitesummary/icinga-generated.cfg with the list of hosts and services to monitor.

Extra Icinga checks can be put in the file /var/lib/sitesummary/icinga-generated.cfg.post to get them included in the generated file.

Information about Icinga is available from https://www.icinga.com/ or in the icinga-doc package.

11.3.2.1. Common Icinga warnings and how to handle them

Here are instructions on how to handle the most common Icinga warnings.

11.3.2.1.1. DISK CRITICAL - free space: /usr 309 MB (5% inode=47%):

La partición (/usr/ en el ejemplo) está llena. Existen dos maneras para resolver esto: (1) elimine algunos archivos o (2) aumente el tamaño de la partición. Si la partición es /var/, purgando el caché de APT ejecutando apt-get clean debería eliminar algunos archivos. Si hay más espacio disponible en el volumen LVM, ejecutar el programa debian-edu-fsautoresize para aumentar las particiones debería ayudar. Para ejecutar este programa cada hora, el equipo debe de ser añadido al grupo de red fsautoresize-hosts.

11.3.2.1.2. APT CRITICAL: 13 packages available for upgrade (13 critical updates).

New package are available for upgrades. The critical ones are normally security fixes. To upgrade, run 'apt-get upgrade && apt-get dist-upgrade' as root in a terminal or log in via ssh to do the same. On LTSP servers, remember to also update the LTSP chroot using ltsp-chroot apt-get update && ltsp-chroot apt-get upgrade.

If you do not want to manually upgrade packages and trust Debian to do a good job with new versions, you can configure unattended-upgrades to automatically upgrade all new packages every night. This will not upgrade the LTSP chroots.

Para actualizar el chroot LTSP, puede usar ltsp-chroot apt-get update && ltsp-chroot apt-get upgrade. En servidores de 64 bits, tendrá que agregar como argumento a ltsp-chroot -a i386. Es buena idea actualizar el chroot cuando actualice el sistema de la computadora.

11.3.2.1.3. WARNING - Reboot required : running kernel = 2.6.32-37.81.0, installed kernel = 2.6.32-38.83.0

El kernel en ejecución es más viejo que el kernel más actual instalado, y un reinicio del equipo es necesario para ejecutar el kernel más nuevo instalado. Normalmente esto es urgente, ya que los nuevos kernels corrigen fallos de seguridad en Debian Edu.

11.3.2.1.4. WARNING: CUPS queue size - 61

The printer queues in CUPS have a lot of jobs pending. This is most likely because of a unavailable printer. Disabled print queues are enabled every hour on hosts that are member of the cups-queue-autoreenable-hosts netgroup, so for such hosts no manual action should be required. The print queues are emptied every night on hosts that are member of the cups-queue-autoflush-hosts netgroup. If a host have a lot of jobs in their queue, consider adding this host to one or both of these netgroups.

11.3.3. Sitesummary

Sitesummary es usado para obtener información de cada computadora y enviarla al servidor principal. La información obtenida se encuentra disponible en /var/lib/sitesummary/entries/. Scripts en /usr/lib/sitesummary/, están disponibles para generar reportes.

Un reporte sencillo de sitesummary sin de talles se encuentra disponible en https://www/sitesummary/.

Documentación sobre sitesummary se encuentra disponible en http://wiki.debian.org/DebianEdu/HowTo/SiteSummary

11.4. Más información sobre personalizaciones de Debian Edu

Más información sobre personalizaciones de Debian Edu útil para administradores de sistema puede encontrarse en el capítulo Administración y en el capítulo Administración avanzada

12. Actualizaciones

/!\ Before reading this upgrade guide, please note that live updates to your production servers are carried out at your own risk. Debian Edu/Skolelinux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by applicable law.

Please read this chapter and the New features in Buster chapter of this manual completely before attempting to upgrade.

12.1. Notas generales sobre la actualización

Upgrading Debian from one distribution to the next is generally rather easy. For Debian Edu this is unfortunately not yet true as we modify configuration files in ways we shouldn't. (See Debian bug 311188 for more information.) Upgrading is still possible but may require some work.

En general, actualizar los servidores es más difícil que las estaciones de trabajo y el servidor principal es el más difícil de actualizar. Las estaciones de trabajo sin disco son más faciles, ya que su entorno chroot puede ser eliminado y recreado si no lo ha modificado. Si lo ha modificado, el chroot es básicamente un chroot de estación de trabajo, así que es bastante fácil de actualizar.

Si quiere asegurase de que después de la actualización todo va como antes, debería probarlo en un sistema de pruebas o en un sistema configurado igual que su servidor en producción. Ahí puede probar la actualización sin riesgo y ver si todo funciona como debiera.

Asegúrese de leer la información sobre la versión estable de Debian actual en el manual de instalación.

También sería inteligente esperar un poco y seguir con la versión anterior durante algunas semanas más, para que otros prueben la actualización y documenten algunos problemas que experimenten. La versión estable anterior de Debian Edu continuará recibiendo soporte por algún tiempo después de la publicación de la siguiente versión estable, pero cuando Debian cese el soporte a la versión estable anterior, Debian Edu hará lo mismo.

12.2. Upgrades from Debian Edu Stretch

/!\ Be prepared: make sure you have tested the upgrade from Stretch in a test environment or have backups ready to be able to go back.

Please note that the following recipe applies to a default Debian Edu main server installation (desktop=xfce, profiles Main Server, Workstation, LTSP Server). (For a general overview concerning stretch to buster upgrade, see: https://www.debian.org/releases/buster/releasenotes)

Don't use X, use a virtual console, log in as root.

If apt finishes with an error, try to fix it and/or run apt -f install and then apt -y full-upgrade once again.

12.2.1. Upgrading the main server

  • Start by making sure the current system is up-to-date:

apt update
apt full-upgrade
  • Cleanup the package cache:

apt clean
  • Make sure you have enough disk space. On both /usr and /var about 5 GiB free space will be needed temporarily. See the related manual chapter for more information.

  • Prepare and start the upgrade to Buster:

sed -i 's/stretch/buster/g' /etc/apt/sources.list
export LC_ALL=C        # optional (to get English output)
apt update
apt purge atftpd       # needed because tftpd will be installed
apt install libcurl4   # needed to replace libcurl3
apt install apache2    # needed first to avoid additional work later on
apt full-upgrade
  • apt-list-changes: be prepared for a lot of NEWS to read; press <return> to scroll down, <q> to leave the pager. All information will be mailed to root so that you can read it again (using mailx or mutt).

  • Read all debconf information carefully, choose 'keep your currently-installed version' unless stated differently below; in most cases hitting return will be fine.

    • restart services: Choose yes.

    • ntp: Choose N.

    • smb

    • dovecot

    • grub

  • Apply and adjust configuration:

cf-agent -I -D installation
  • Get the new Debian Edu Buster artwork:

apt install debian-edu-artwork-buster
  • Enable PHP 7.3 support:

apt purge php7.0*
a2enmod php7.3
a2enconf php7.3-cgi
service apache2 restart
  • Adjust GOsa² access (changed encryption method):

    • backup /etc/gosa/gosa.conf.orig

    • replace the long (hashed) password in /etc/gosa/gosa.conf with the short (random) password from /etc/gosa/gosa.conf.orig (for both adminPassword and snapshotAdminPassword)

    • remove /etc/gosa/gosa.secrets

    • run gosa-encrypt-passwords

    • run service apache2 reload

  • After reboot, do some more cleanup:

apt purge linux-image-4.9.0-*
apt purge linux-headers-4.9.0-*
apt --purge autoremove
  • Check if the upgraded system works:

Reboot; log in as first user and test

  • if the GOsa² gui is working,

  • if one is able to connect LTSP clients and workstations,

  • if one can add/remove a netgroup membership of a system,

  • if one can send and receive internal email,

  • if one can manage printers,

  • and if other site specific things are working.

12.2.2. Upgrading a workstation

Do all the basic things like on the main-server and without doing the things not needed.

12.2.3. Upgrading LTSP chroots

Make sure you have enough disk space. LTSP uses Network Block Device (NBD). The NBD image file size is about 4 GiB (default installation). If the image is updated, another 4 GiB for a temporary file are needed.

Also please note that the default LTSP architecture was i386 for Stretch. See below how to create a chroot for 64-bit-PCs (amd64).

ltsp-chroot -m -a i386 apt update
ltsp-chroot -m -a i386 apt -y full-upgrade
sed -i 's/stretch/buster/g' /opt/ltsp/i386/etc/apt/sources.list
ltsp-chroot -m -a i386 apt update
ltsp-chroot -m -a i386 apt -y full-upgrade
ltsp-chroot -m -a i386 apt -f install
ltsp-chroot -m -a i386 apt -y full-upgrade
  • Cleaning up:

ltsp-chroot -m -a i386 apt --purge autoremove
  • Update LTSP support on the server side:

ltsp-update-kernels
ltsp-update-sshkeys
ltsp-update-image

To save disk space, ltsp-update-image -n could be used instead; see man ltsp-update-image.

12.2.4. Recreating an LTSP chroot

On the LTSP server(s) the LTSP chroot could also be recreated. The new chroot will still support both thin-clients and diskless workstations. Please note: As of Buster, the LTSP chroot arch defaults to the one used for the server side.

Elimine /opt/ltsp/i386 (o /opt/ltsp/amd64, dependiendo de su configuración). Si tiene suficiente espacio en disco, considere respaldarlo.

See ltsp-build-client --help and ltsp-build-client --extra-help for more information about options. The file /etc/ltsp/ltsp-build-client.conf contains some useful (commented) options.

Recreate the chroot by running ltsp-build-client as root.

12.2.5. Add additional LTSP chroot to support 64-bit-PC clients

At least 20 GiB additional disk space on /opt is required.

  • Run "ltsp-build-client --arch amd64" to create chroot and NBD image.

  • Use "ldapvi -ZD '(cn=admin)'" to replace i386 with amd64 (dhcp statements in LDAP for one dedicated network).

  • Run "service isc-dhcp-server restart".

  • Edit /etc/debian-edu/pxeinstall.conf (set ltsparch=amd64).

  • Run 'debian-edu-pxeinstall' to regenerate the PXE menu.

  • Run 'service nbd-service restart' to serve the new NBD file.

12.3. Upgrades from older Debian Edu / Skolelinux installations (before Stretch)

To upgrade from any older release, you will need to upgrade to the Stretch based Debian Edu release first, before you can follow the instructions provided above. Instructions are given in the Manual for Debian Edu Stretch about how to upgrade to Stretch from the previous release, Jessie. Likewise the Jessie manual describes how to upgrade from Wheezy.

13. Guías

14. Guías para administración general

Los capítulos Iniciando y Mantenimiento describen como empezar con Debian Edu y como realizar el trabajo de mantenimiento básico. Las guías en estos capítulos, tienen también trucos y recomendaciones más "avanzadas".

14.1. Seguimiento de /etc usando el sistema de control de versiones git

Con la introducción de etckeeper en Debian Edu Squeeze (las versiones anteriores utilizaban etcinsvk el cual fué removido de Debian), todos los archivos en /etc/ son seguidos utilizando git como sistema de control de versiones.

Esto hace posible ver cuando un archivo es agregado, modificado o eliminado, también ver lo que se cambió si el archivo es un archivo de texto. El repositorio de git es guardado en /etc/.git/.

Cualquier cambio, es registrado cada hora, permitiendo tener un histórico de la configuración para ser extraído y revisado.

To look at the history, the command etckeeper vcs log is used. To check the differences between two points in time, a command like etckeeper vcs diff can be used.

Revise la salida de man etckeeper para más información.

Lista de comandos útiles:

etckeeper vcs log
etckeeper vcs status
etckeeper vcs diff
etckeeper vcs add .
etckeeper vcs commit -a
man etckeeper

14.1.1. Ejemplos de uso

En un sistema recién instalado pruebe esto para ver todos los cambios realizados desde que el sistema fue instalado:

etckeeper vcs log

Vea que archivos no están siendo seguidos, o los que no están actualizados:

etckeeper vcs status

To manually commit a file, because you don't want to wait up to an hour:

etckeeper vcs commit -a /etc/resolv.conf

14.2. Redimensionando Particiones

In Debian Edu, all partitions other than the /boot/ partition are on logical LVM volumes. With Linux kernels since version 2.6.10, it is possible to extend partitions while they are mounted. Shrinking partitions still needs to happen while the partition is unmounted.

It is a good idea to avoid creating very large partitions (over, say, 20GiB), because of the time it takes to run fsck on them or to restore them from backup if the need arises. It is better, if possible, to create several smaller partitions than one very large one.

The helper script debian-edu-fsautoresize is provided to make it easier to extend full partitions. When invoked, it reads the configuration from /usr/share/debian-edu-config/fsautoresizetab, /site/etc/fsautoresizetab and /etc/fsautoresizetab. It then proposes to extend partitions with too little free space, according to the rules provided in these files. If run with no arguments, it will only show the commands needed to extend the file system. The argument -n is needed to actually execute these commands to extend the file systems.

The script is executed automatically every hour on every client listed in the fsautoresize-hosts netgroup.

When the partition used by the Squid proxy is resized, the value for cache size in etc/squid/squid.conf needs to be updated as well. The helper script /usr/share/debian-edu-config/tools/squid-update-cachedir is provided to do this automatically, checking the current partition size of /var/spool/squid/ and configuring Squid to use 80% of this as its cache size.

14.2.1. Gestión de volúmenes lógicos

Logical Volume Management (LVM) enables resizing the partitions while they are mounted and in use. You can learn more about LVM from the LVM HowTo.

To extend a logical volume manually you simply tell the lvextend command how large you want it to grow to. For example, to extend home0 to 30GiB you use the following commands:

lvextend -L30G /dev/vg_system/skole+tjener+home0
resize2fs /dev/vg_system/skole+tjener+home0

To extend home0 by additional 30GiB, you insert a '+' (-L+30G)

14.3. Installing a graphical environment on the main-server to use GOsa²

If you (probably accidentally) installed a pure main-server profile and don't have a client with a web-browser handy, it's easy to install a minimal desktop on the main server using this command sequence in a (non-graphical) shell as the user you created during the main server's installation (first user):

  $ sudo apt update
  $ sudo apt install education-desktop-xfce lightdm
  ### after installation, run 'sudo service lightdm start' 
  ### login as first user

14.4. Usar ldapvi

ldapvi es una herramienta para editar la base de datos LDAP con un editor de texto en la linea de comandos.

Lo siguiente necesita ser ejecutado:

ldapvi --ldap-conf -ZD '(cn=admin)'

Nota: ldapvi usará el editor de texto predeterminado. Ejecutar export EDITOR=vim en el intérprete de comandos puede configurar el entorno para tener un clon de vi como editor.

To add an LDAP object using ldapvi, use object sequence number with the string add in front of the new LDAP object.

/!\ Warning: ldapvi is a very powerful tool. Be careful and don't mess up the LDAP database, same warning applies for JXplorer.

14.5. Kerberized NFS

Using Kerberos for NFS to mount home directories is a security feature. The levels krb5, krb5i and krb5p are supported (krb5 means Kerberos authentication, i stands for integrity check and p for privacy, i.e. encryption); the load on both server and workstation increases with the security level, krb5i might be a good choice.

For new systems added with GOsa², Kerberos host keytab files are generated automatically.

To create one for a system already configured with GOsa², log in on the main server as root and run

/usr/share/debian-edu-config/tools/gosa-modify-host <hostname> <IP>

Please note: host keytab creation is possible for systems of type workstations, servers and terminals but not for those of type netdevices. Also, LTSP clients are using sshfs to mount home directories, so there's nothing to do for diskless workstations.

14.5.1. How to enable it

Main server

  • login as root

  • run ldapvi -ZD '(cn=admin)', search for sec=sys and replace it with sec=krb5i

  • edit /etc/exports: uncomment/adjust/comment existing entries for /srv/*; make sure they look like this:

/srv/nfs4        gss/krb5i(rw,sync,fsid=0,crossmnt,no_subtree_check)
/srv/nfs4/home0  gss/krb5i(rw,sync,no_subtree_check)
  • run exportfs -r

  • run exportfs to control if gss/krb5i is active for both entries.

Workstation

  • login as root.

  • run /usr/share/debian-edu-config/tools/copy-host-keytab

14.6. Standardskriver

This tool allows to set the default printer depending on location, machine, or group membership. For more information, see /usr/share/doc/standardskriver/README.md.

The configuration file /etc/standardskriver.cfg has to be provided by the admin, see /usr/share/doc/standardskriver/examples/standardskriver.cfg as an example.

14.7. JXplorer, una interfaz gráfica para LDAP

If you prefer a GUI to work with the LDAP database, check out the jxplorer package, which is installed by default. To get write access connect like this:

host: ldap.intern
port: 636
Security level: ssl + user + password
User dn: cn=admin,ou=ldap-access,dc=skole,dc=skolelinux,dc=no

14.8. ldap-createuser-krb, una herramienta para línea de comando

ldap-createuser-krb is a small command line tool to create LDAP users and set their passwords in Kerberos. It's mostly useful for testing, though.

14.9. Using stable-updates

Since the Squeeze release in 2011, Debian has included packages formerly maintained in volatile.debian.org in the stable-updates suite.

While you can use stable-updates directly, you don't have to: stable-updates are pushed into the stable suite regularly when stable point releases are done, which roughly happens every two months.

14.10. Using backports to install newer software

You are running Debian Edu because you prefer the stability of Debian Edu. It runs great; there is just one problem: sometimes software is a little bit more outdated than you like. This is where backports.debian.org steps in.

Backports are recompiled packages from Debian testing (mostly) and Debian unstable (in a few cases only, e.g. security updates), so they will run without new libraries (wherever this is possible) on a stable Debian distribution like Debian Edu. We recommend you to pick out individual backports which fit your needs, and not to use all backports available there.

Usar backports es sencillo:

echo "deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster-backports main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list
apt-get update

After which one can install backported packages easily, the following command will install a backported version of tuxtype:

apt-get install -t buster-backports tuxtype

Backports are automatically updated (if available) just like other packages. Like the normal archive, backports has three sections: main, contrib and non-free.

14.11. Actualizar con un CD o similar

If you want to upgrade from one version to another (for example from Buster 10.1+edu0 to 10.3+edu1) but you do not have Internet connectivity, only physical media, follow these steps:

Insert the CD / DVD / Blu-ray disc / USB flash drive and use the apt-cdrom command:

apt-cdrom add

Para citar el manual de referencia de apt-cdrom(8):

  • apt-cdrom is used to add a new CD-ROM to APTs list of available sources. apt-cdrom takes care of determining the structure of the disc as well as correcting for several possible mis-burns and verifying the index files.

  • It is necessary to use apt-cdrom to add CDs to the APT system, it cannot be done by hand. Furthermore each disk in a multi-CD set must be inserted and scanned separately to account for possible mis-burns.

Luego ejecute estos dos comandos para actualizar el sistema:

apt-get update 
apt-get upgrade

14.12. Automatic cleanup of leftover processes

killer is a perl script that gets rid of background jobs. Background jobs are defined as processes that belong to users who are not currently logged into the machine. It's run by cron job once an hour.

14.13. Instalación automática de actualizaciones de seguridad

unattended-upgrades is a Debian package which will install security (and other) upgrades automatically. If installed, the package is preconfigured to install security upgrades. The logs are available in /var/log/unattended-upgrades/; also, there are always /var/log/dpkg.log and /var/log/apt/.

14.14. Apagado automático de las computadoras durante la noche

It is possible to save energy and money by automatically turning client machines off at night and back on in the morning. The package will try to turn off the machine every hour on the hour from 16:00 in the afternoon, but will not turn it off if it seems to have users. It will try to tell the BIOS to turn on the machine around 07:00 in the morning, and the main-server will try to turn on machines from 06:30 by sending wake-on-lan packets. These times can be changed in the crontabs of individual machines.

Some considerations should be kept in mind when setting this up:

  • The clients should not be shut down when someone is using them. This is ensured by checking the output from who, and as a special case, checking for the LDM ssh connection command to work with LTSP thin clients.

  • To avoid blowing electrical fuses, it is a good idea to make sure all clients do not start at the same time.

  • There are two different methods available to wake up clients. One uses a BIOS feature and requires a working and correct hardware clock, as well as a motherboard and BIOS version supported by nvram-wakeup; the other requires clients to have support for wake-on-lan, and the server to know about all the clients that need to be woken up.

14.14.1. Como configurar shutdown-at-night

On clients that should turn off at night, touch /etc/shutdown-at-night/shutdown-at-night, or add the hostname (that is, the output from 'uname -n' on the client) to the netgroup "shutdown-at-night-hosts". Adding hosts to the netgroup in LDAP can be done using the GOsa² web tool. The clients might need to have wake-on-lan configured in the BIOS. It is also important that the switches and routers used between the wake-on-lan server and the clients will pass the WOL packets to the clients even if the clients are turned off. Some switches fail to pass on packets to clients that are missing in the ARP table on the switch, and this blocks the WOL packets.

To enable wake-on-lan on the server, add the clients to /etc/shutdown-at-night/clients, with one line per client, IP address first, followed by MAC address (ethernet address), separated by a space; or create a script /etc/shutdown-at-night/clients-generator to generate the list of clients on the fly.

Aquí tiene un ejemplo de /etc/shutdown-at-night/clients-generator para usar con sitesummary:

  #!/bin/sh
  PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH
  export PATH
  sitesummary-nodes -w

An alternative if the netgroup is used to activate shutdown-at-night on clients is this script using the netgroup tool from the ng-utils package:

  #!/bin/sh
  PATH=/usr/sbin:$PATH
  export PATH
  netgroup -h shutdown-at-night-hosts

14.15. Acceso a servidores Debian-Edu ubicados detrás de un firewall

To access machines behind a firewall from the Internet, consider installing the package autossh. It can be used to set up an SSH tunnel to a machine on the Internet that you have access to. From that machine, you can access the server behind the firewall via the SSH tunnel.

14.16. Installing additional service machines for spreading the load from main-server

En la instalación predeterminada, todos los servicios están ejecutándose en el servidor principal, tjener. Para mover algunos servicios a otra computadora de manera sencilla, existe un perfil mínimo de instalación disponible. Instalar con este perfil le proporcionará una computadora, que es parte de la red de Debian Edu, pero que no cuenta con un servicio ejecutándose (todavía)

Estos son los pasos que se deben seguir para configurar un servicio dedicado en una computadora:

  • Instale el perfil mínimo usando la opción de carga debian-edu-expert.

  • Instale los paquetes del servicio.

  • Configure el servicio.

  • Deshabilite el servicio en el servidor principal.

  • Actualice el servicio DNS (via LDAP/GOsa²) en el servidor principal.

14.17. HowTos de wiki.debian.org

FIXME: The HowTos from http://wiki.debian.org/DebianEdu/HowTo/ are either user- or developer-specific. Let's move the user-specific HowTos over here (and delete them over there)! (But first ask the authors (see the history of those pages to find them) if they are fine with moving the howto and putting it under the GPL.)

15. Advanced administration howto

In this chapter advanced administration tasks are described.

15.1. Personalizaciones de usuarios con GOsa²

15.1.1. Create Users in Year Groups

In this example we want to create users in year groups, with common home directories for each group (home0/2014, home0/2015, etc). We want to create the users by csv import.

(as root on the main server)

  • Make the necessary year group directories

mkdir /skole/tjener/home0/2014

(as first user in Gosa)

  • Departamento

Main menu: goto 'Directory structure', click the 'Students' department. The 'Base' field should show '/Students'. From the drop box 'Actions' choose 'Create'/'Department'. Fill in values for Name (2014) and Description fields (students graduating in 2014), leave the Base field as is (should be '/Students'). Save it clicking 'Ok'. Now the new department (2014) should show up below /Students. Click it.

  • Grupo

Elije "Groups" del menú principal; "Actions"/Create/Group. Escriba el nombre del grupo (deje "Base", debería estar en /Students/2014) y haga clic en la caja de selección de la izquierda de "Samba group". "ok" para guardar.

  • Planitlla

Choose 'users' from the main menu. Change to 'Students' in the Base field. An Entry NewStudent should show up, click it. This is the 'students' template, not a real user. As you'll have to create such a template (to be able to use csv import for your structure) based on this one, notice all entries showing up in the Generic, POSIX and Samba tabs, maybe take screenshots to have information ready for the new template.

Now change to /Students/2014 in the Base field; choose Create/Template and start to fill in your desired values, first the Generic tab (add your new 2014 group under Group Membership, too), then add POSIX and Samba account.

  • Importar usuarios

Choose your new template when doing csv import; testing it with a few users is recommended.

15.2. Other User Customisations

15.2.1. Crear directorios en el directorio home de los usuarios

Con este script, el administrador puede crear directorios en cada directorio personal de usuario y establecer los permisos de acceso y propiedad.

In the example shown below with group=teachers and permissions=2770 a user can hand in an assignment by saving the file to the folder "assignments" where teachers are given write access to be able to make comments.

 #!/bin/bash
 home_path="/skole/tjener/home0"
 shared_folder="assignments"
 permissions="2770"
 created_dir=0
 for home in $(ls $home_path); do
    if [ ! -d "$home_path/$home/$shared_folder" ]; then
        mkdir $home_path/$home/$shared_folder
        chmod $permissions $home_path/$home/$shared_folder
        #set the right owner and group
        #"username" = "group name" = "folder name"
        user=$home
        group=teachers
        chown $user:$group $home_path/$home/$shared_folder
        ((created_dir+=1))
    else
        echo -e "the folder $home_path/$home/$shared_folder already exists.\n"
    fi
 done
 echo "$created_dir folders have been created"

15.2.2. Easy access to USB drives and CD-ROMs/DVDs

When users insert a USB drive or a DVD / CD-ROM into a (diskless) workstation, a popup window appears asking what to do with it, just like in any other normal installation.

When users insert a USB drive or a DVD / CD-ROM into a thin client there is only a notify-window showing up for a few seconds. The media is automatically mounted and it is possible to access it browsing to the /media/$user folder. This is quite difficult for many non experienced users.

It is possible to have the default KDE "Plasma" file manager Dolphin showing up if KDE "Plasma" (or LDXE, if installed in parallel to KDE "Plasma") is in use as desktop environment. To configure this, simply execute /usr/share/debian-edu-config/ltspfs-mounter-kde enable on the terminal server. (When using GNOME, device icons will be placed on the desktop allowing easy access).

In addition the following script could be used to create the symlink "media" for all users in their home folder for easy access to USB drives, CD-ROM / DVD or whatever media is connected to the thin client. This might come in handy if users want to edit files directly on their plugged in media.

 #!/bin/bash
 home_path="/skole/tjener/home0"
 shared_folder="media"
 permissions="775"
 created_dir=0;
 for home in $(ls $home_path); do
    if [ ! -d "$home_path/$home/$shared_folder" ]; then
        ln -s /media/$home $home_path/$home/$shared_folder
        ((created_dir+=1))
    else
        echo -e "the folder $home_path/$home/$shared_folder already exists.\n"
    fi
 done
 echo "$created_dir folders has been created"
15.2.2.1. Advertencia sobre medios removibles en servidores LTSP

/!\ Warning: When inserted into an LTSP server USB drives and other removable media cause popup messages on remote LTSP clients.

If remote users acknowledge the popup or use pmount from the console, they can even mount the removable devices and access the files.

15.3. Use a dedicated storage server

Take these steps to set up a dedicated storage server for user home directories and possibly other data.

  • Add a new system of type server using GOsa² as outlined in the Getting started chapter of this manual.

    • This example uses 'nas-server.intern' as the server name. Once 'nas-server.intern' is configured, check if the NFS export points on the new storage server are exported to the relevant subnets or machines:

          root@tjener:~# showmount -e nas-server
          Export list for nas-server:
          /storage         10.0.0.0/8
          root@tjener:~#

      Here everything on the backbone network is granted access to the /storage export. (This could be restricted to netgroup membership or single IP addresses to limit NFS access like it is done in the tjener:/etc/exports file.)

  • Add automount information about 'nas-server.intern' in LDAP to allow all clients to automatically mount the new export on request.

    • This can't be done using GOsa², because a module for automount is missing. Instead, use ldapvi and add the required LDAP objects using an editor.

      ldapvi --ldap-conf -ZD '(cn=admin)' -b ou=automount,dc=skole,dc=skolelinux,dc=no

      When the editor shows up, add the following LDAP objects at the bottom of the document. (The "/&" part in the last LDAP object is a wild card matching everything 'nas-server.intern' exports, removing the need to list individual mount points in LDAP.)

          add cn=nas-server,ou=auto.skole,ou=automount,dc=skole,dc=skolelinux,dc=no
          objectClass: automount
          cn: nas-server
          automountInformation: -fstype=autofs --timeout=60 ldap:ou=auto.nas-server,ou=automount,dc=skole,dc=skolelinux,dc=no
       
          add ou=auto.nas-server,ou=automount,dc=skole,dc=skolelinux,dc=no
          objectClass: top
          objectClass: automountMap
          ou: auto.nas-server
       
          add cn=/,ou=auto.nas-server,ou=automount,dc=skole,dc=skolelinux,dc=no
          objectClass: automount
          cn: /
          automountInformation: -fstype=nfs,tcp,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,rw,intr,hard,nodev,nosuid,noatime nas-server.intern:/&
  • Add the relevant entries in tjener.intern:/etc/fstab, because tjener.intern does not use automount to avoid mounting loops:

    • Create the mount point directories using mkdir, edit '/etc/fstab' as adequate and run mount -a to mount the new resources.

  • Enable access in case diskless workstations are used. This is a special case, because sshfs is used instead of NFS and automount:

    • Create the mount point directories in the LTSP diskless client's root (default /opt/ltsp/i386/) as well.

      Add a line containing 'LOCAL_APPS_EXTRAMOUNTS=/storage' to /opt/ltsp/i386/etc/lts.conf (example).

      Create a link in each user's home dir like 'ln -s /storage Storage' to help users find the resources.

Now users should be able to access the files on 'nas-server.intern' directly by just visiting the '/tjener/nas-server/storage/' directory using any application on any workstation, LTSP thin client or LTSP server, and visiting ~/Storage in case an LTSP diskless client is used.

15.4. Restrict ssh login access

There are several ways to restrict ssh login, some are listed here.

15.4.1. Setup without LTSP clients

If no LTSP clients are used a simple solution is to create a new group (say sshusers) and to add a line to the machine's /etc/ssh/sshd_config file. Only members of the sshusers group will then be allowed to ssh into the machine from everywhere.

Managing this case with GOsa is quite simple:

  • Create a group sshusers on the base level (where already other system management related groups like gosa-admins show up).

  • Add users to the new group sshusers.

  • Add AllowGroups sshusers to /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

  • Execute service ssh restart.

15.4.2. Setup with LTSP clients

The default LTSP client setup uses ssh connections to the LTSP server. So a different approach using PAM is needed.

  • Enable pam_access.so in the LTSP server's /etc/pam.d/sshd file.

  • Configure /etc/security/access.conf to allow connections for (sample) users alice, jane, bob and john from everywhere and for all other users only from the internal networks by adding these lines:

+ : alice jane bob john : ALL
+ : ALL : 10.0.0.0/8 192.168.0.0/24 192.168.1.0/24
- : ALL : ALL
#

If only dedicated LTSP servers are used, the 10.0.0.0/8 network could be dropped to disable internal ssh login access. Note: someone connecting his box to the dedicated LTSP client network(s) will gain ssh access to the LTSP server(s) as well.

15.4.3. A note for more complex setups

If LTSP clients were attached to the backbone network 10.0.0.0/8 (combi server or LTSP cluster setup) things would be even more complicated and maybe only a sophisticated DHCP setup (in LDAP) checking the vendor-class-identifier together with appropriate PAM configuration would allow to disable internal ssh login.

16. HowTos for the desktop

16.1. Set up a multi-language desktop environment

To support multiple languages these commands need to be run:

  • Run dpkg-reconfigure locales (as root) and choose the languages (UTF-8 variants).

  • Run these commands as root to install the related packages:

apt update
/usr/share/debian-edu-config/tools/install-task-pkgs
/usr/share/debian-edu-config/tools/improve-desktop-l10n

Users will then be able to choose the language via the LightDM display manager before logging in; this applies to Xfce, LXDE and LXQt. GNOME and KDE both come with their own internal region and language configuration tools, use these. MATE uses the Arctica greeter on top of Lightdm whithout a language chooser. Run apt purge arctica-greeter to get the stock Lightdm greeter.

If LTSP diskless clients are used the above steps need to be done inside the LTSP chroot as well. LDM supports all desktop environments. First use Preferences to choose the language, then login.

16.2. Reproducir DVDs

libdvdcss is needed for playing most commercial DVDs. For legal reasons it's not included in Debian (Edu). If you are legally allowed to use it, you can build your own local packages using the libdvd-pkg Debian package; make sure contrib is enabled in /etc/apt/sources.list.

apt update
apt install libdvd-pkg

Answer the debconf questions, then run dpkg-reconfigure libdvd-pkg.

16.3. Handwriting fonts

The package fonts-linex (which is installed by default) installs the font "Abecedario" which is a nice handwriting font for kids. The font has several forms to be used with kids: dotted, and with lines.

17. HowTos para clientes en red

17.1. Introducción a clientes ligeros y estaciones de trabajo sin disco

(!) Default for new Debian Edu Buster installations: LTSP clients are using the same architecture as the LTSP server, i.e. 64-bit-PC (aka amd64) or 32-bit-PC (aka i386).

/!\ Please keep in mind to use the correct architecture for all commands referred to below.

Un término genérico para clientes ligeros y estaciones de trabajo sin disco es cliente LTSP. LTSP es el acrónimo en Inglés para Linux Terminal Server Project.

Cliente ligero

A thin client setup enables an ordinary PC to function as an (X-)terminal, where all software runs on the LTSP server. This means that this machine boots via PXE without using a local client hard drive.

Estaciones de trabajo sin disco

A diskless workstation runs all software locally. The client machines boot directly from the LTSP server without a local hard drive. Software is administered and maintained on the LTSP server (inside of the LTSP chroot), but it runs on the diskless workstation. Home directories and system settings are stored on the server too. Diskless workstations are an excellent way of reusing older (but powerful) hardware with the same low maintenance cost as with thin clients.

LTSP defines 320MB as the default minimum amount of RAM for diskless workstations. If the amount of RAM is less, the machine will boot as thin client. The related LTSP parameter is FAT_RAM_THRESHOLD with the default value 300. So if (for example) the clients should only boot as diskless workstations if they have 1 GB RAM, add FAT_RAM_THRESHOLD=1000 to lts.conf (or set this in LDAP). Unlike workstations diskless workstations run without any need to add them with GOsa², because LDM is used to login and connect to the LTSP server.

LTSP client firmware

LTSP client boot will fail if the client's network interface requires a non-free firmware. A PXE installation can be used for troubleshooting problems with netbooting a machine; if the Debian Installer complains about a missing XXX.bin file then non-free firmware has to be added to the initrd used by LTSP clients.

En este caso, ejecute los siguientes comandos en un servidor LTSP.

# First get information about firmware packages
apt-get update && apt-cache search ^firmware-
 
# Decide which package has to be installed for the network interface(s). 
# Most probably this will be firmware-linux-nonfree.
# Things have to take effect in the LTSP chroot for architecture amd64.
ltsp-chroot -a amd64 apt-get update
ltsp-chroot -d -a amd64 apt-get -y -q install <package name>
 
# copy the new initrd to the server's tftpboot directory and update the NBD image.
ltsp-update-kernels
ltsp-update-image

Una manera más corta sería instalar todos los firmware disponibles y actualizar el directorio tftpboot, podría ejecutar:

/usr/share/debian-edu-config/tools/ltsp-addfirmware

17.1.1. LTSP client type selection

Each LTSP server has two ethernet interfaces: one configured in the main 10.0.0.0/8 subnet (which is shared with the main server), and another forming a local 192.168.0.0/24 subnet (a separate subnet for each LTSP server).

En la subred principal tendrá el menú PXE completo; la sured separada para cada servidor LTSP le permite seleccionar solo clientes sin discos y ligeros LTSP.

Using the default PXE menu on the main subnet 10.0.0.0/8, a machine could be started as diskless workstation or thin client. By default clients in the separate subnet 192.168.0.0/24 will run as diskless workstations if the amount of RAM is sufficient. If all clients in this LTSP client subnet should run as thin clients, the following has to be done.

(1)Open the file /opt/ltsp/amd64/etc/ltsp/update-kernels.conf with an editor
and replace the line
CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="init=/sbin/init-ltsp quiet"
with
CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="init=/sbin/init-ltsp LTSP_FATCLIENT=False quiet"
(2)Execute 'ltsp-chroot -a amd64 /usr/share/ltsp/update-kernels'
(3)Execute 'ltsp-update-kernels'
(4)Execute 'ltsp-update-image'

17.2. Configurar el menú PXE

The PXE configuration is generated using the script debian-edu-pxeinstall. It allows some settings to be overridden using the file /etc/debian-edu/pxeinstall.conf with replacement values.

17.2.1. Configurar la instalación de PXE

The PXE installation option is by default available to anyone able to PXE boot a machine. To password protect the PXE installation options, a file /var/lib/tftpboot/menupassword.cfg can be created with content similar to this:

MENU PASSWD $4$NDk0OTUzNTQ1NTQ5$7d6KvAlVCJKRKcijtVSPfveuWPM$

The password hash should be replaced with an MD5 hash for the desired password.

The PXE installation will inherit the language, keyboard layout and mirror settings from the settings used when installing the main-server, and the other questions will be asked during installation (profile, popcon participation, partitioning and root password). To avoid these questions, the file /etc/debian-edu/www/debian-edu-install.dat can be modified to provide preselected answers to debconf values. Some examples of available debconf values are already commented in /etc/debian-edu/www/debian-edu-install.dat. Your changes will be lost as soon as debian-edu-pxeinstall is used to recreate the PXE-installation environment. To append debconf values to /etc/debian-edu/www/debian-edu-install.dat during recreation with debian-edu-pxeinstall, add the file /etc/debian-edu/www/debian-edu-install.dat.local with your additional debconf values.

More information about modifying PXE installations can be found in the Installation chapter.

17.2.2. Agregar un repositorio personalizado para instalaciones PXE

For adding a custom repository add something like this to /etc/debian-edu/www/debian-edu-install.dat.local:

#add the skole projects local repository
d-i     apt-setup/local1/repository string      http://example.org/debian stable main contrib non-free
d-i     apt-setup/local1/comment string         Example Software Repository
d-i     apt-setup/local1/source boolean         true
d-i     apt-setup/local1/key    string          http://example.org/key.asc

y luego ejecute una vez /usr/sbin/debian-edu-pxeinstall

17.2.3. Cambiar el menú PXE en un servidor combinado (servidor principal y LTSP)

The PXE menu allows network booting of LTSP clients, the installer and other alternatives. The file /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default is used by default if no other file in that directory matches the client, and out of the box it is set to link to /var/lib/tftpboot/debian-edu/default-menu.cfg.

If all clients should boot as diskless workstations instead of getting the full PXE menu, this can be implemented by changing the symlink:

ln -s /var/lib/tftpboot/debian-edu/default-diskless.cfg /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default

If all clients should boot as thin clients instead, change the symlink like this:

ln -s /var/lib/tftpboot/debian-edu/default-thin.cfg /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default

See also the PXELINUX documentation at http://syslinux.zytor.com/wiki/index.php/PXELINUX .

17.2.4. Separate main and LTSP server

For performance and security considerations it might be desired to set up a separate main server which doesn't act as LTSP server.

To have ltspserver00 serve diskless workstations on the main (10.0.0.0/8) network, when the main server is not a combined server, follow these steps:

  • copy the ltsp directory from /var/lib/tftpboot on ltspserver00 to the same directory on the main server.

  • copy /var/lib/tftpboot/debian-edu/default-diskless.cfg to the same directory on the main server.

  • edit /var/lib/tftpboot/debian-edu/default-diskless.cfg to use the IP address of ltspserver00; the following example uses 10.0.2.10 for the IP address of ltspserver00 on the main network:

 DEFAULT ltsp/amd64/vmlinuz initrd=ltsp/amd64/initrd.img nfsroot=10.0.2.10:/opt/ltsp/amd64 init=/sbin/init-ltsp boot=nfs ro quiet ipappend 2
  • set the symlink in /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg on the main server to point to /var/lib/tftpboot/debian-edu/default-diskless.cfg.

As an alternative, you could use ldapvi, search for 'next server tjener' and replace tjener with ltspserver00.

17.2.5. Use a different LTSP client network

192.168.0.0/24 is the default LTSP client network if a machine is installed using the LTSP profile. If lots of LTSP clients are used or if different LTSP servers should serve both i386 and amd64 chroot environments the second preconfigured network 192.168.1.0/24 could be used as well. Edit the file /etc/network/interfaces and adjust the eth1 settings accordingly. Use ldapvi or any other LDAP editor to inspect DNS and DHCP configuration.

17.2.6. Add LTSP chroot to support 32-bit-PC clients

In case LTSP server and chroot are 64-bit-PC, it is still possible to support older 32-bit systems. At least 20 GiB additional disk space on /opt would be required.

  • Run ltsp-build-client --arch i386 to create chroot and NBD image.

  • Use ldapvi -ZD '(cn=admin)' to replace amd64 with i386 (dhcp statements in LDAP for one dedicated network).

  • Run service isc-dhcp-server restart.

  • Run service nbd-server restart to serve the new NBD file.

17.3. Changing network settings

The debian-edu-config package comes with a tool which helps in changing the network from 10.0.0.0/8 to something else. Have a look at /usr/share/debian-edu-config/tools/subnet-change. It is intended for use just after installation on the main server, to update LDAP and other files that need to be edited to change the subnet.

/!\ Note that changing to one of the subnets already used elsewhere in Debian Edu will not work. 192.168.0.0/24 and 192.168.1.0/24 are already set up as LTSP client networks. Changing to these subnets will require manual editing of configuration files to remove duplicate entries.

There is no easy way to change the DNS domain name. Changing it would require changes to both the LDAP structure and several files in the main server file system. There is also no easy way to change the host and DNS name of the main server (tjener.intern). To do so would also require changes to LDAP and files in the main-server and client file system. In both cases the Kerberos setup would have to be changed, too.

17.4. LTSP en detalle

17.4.1. Configuración del cliente LTSP en LDAP (y en lts.conf)

To configure specific LTSP clients with particular features, you can add settings in LDAP or edit the file /opt/ltsp/amd64/etc/lts.conf. Please note that ltsp-update-image has to be run after each change to lts.conf. The image update isn't needed if lts.conf is copied to the /var/lib/tftpboot/ltsp/amd64/ directory.

/!\ We recommend to configure clients in LDAP (and not edit lts.conf directly, however, configuration webforms for LTSP are currently not available in GOsa², you have to use a plain LDAP browser/explorer or ldapvi), as this makes it possible to add and/or replace LTSP servers without loosing (or having to redo) configuration.

The default values in LDAP are defined in the cn=ltspConfigDefault,ou=ltsp,dc=skole,dc=skolelinux,dc=no LDAP object using the ltspConfig attribute. One can also add host specific entries in LDAP.

Run man lts.conf to have a look at available configuration options (see /usr/share/doc/ltsp/LTSPManual.html for detailed information about LTSP).

The default values are defined under [default]; to configure one client, specify it in terms of its MAC address or IP address like this: [192.168.0.10].

Example: To make the thin client ltsp010 use 1280x1024 resolution, add something like this:

[192.168.0.10]
X_MODE_0 = 1280x1024
X_HORZSYNC = "60-70"
X_VERTREFRESH = "59-62"

somewhere below the default settings.

To force the use of a specific xserver on an LTSP client, set the XSERVER variable. For example:

[192.168.0.11]
XSERVER = nvidia

If a thin client comes up with a black screen the use of a specific color depth might help. For example:

[192.168.0.12]
X_COLOR_DEPTH=16

Depending on what changes you make, it may be necessary to restart the client.

To use IP addresses in lts.conf you need to add the client MAC address to your DHCP server. Otherwise you should use the client MAC address directly in your lts.conf file.

17.4.2. Force all LTSP clients to use LXDE as default desktop environment

Make sure that LXDE is installed on the LTSP server; then add these lines below [default] in "lts.conf":

LDM_SESSION=LXDE
LDM_FORCE_SESSION=true

17.4.3. Desktop autoloader

This tool preloads the default Desktop environment (and programs of your choice). It is only useful for diskless clients. The setup is site specific, also some technical skills are required.

  • Read about it: run ltsp-chroot cat /usr/share/doc/desktop-autoloader/README.Debian

At least two files need to be edited. Available <editor> choices are: vi, nano, mcedit.

  • run ltsp-chroot <editor> /etc/cron.d/desktop-autoloader

  • run ltsp-chroot <editor> /etc/default/desktop-autoloader

If the setup is complete, update the NBD image running ltsp-update-image and test it.

17.4.4. Load-balancing LTSP servers

17.4.4.1. Parte 1

It is possible to set up the clients to connect to one of several LTSP servers for load-balancing. This is done by providing /opt/ltsp/amd64/usr/share/ltsp/get_hosts as a script printing one or more servers for LDM to connect to. In addition to this, each LTSP chroot needs to include the SSH host key for each of the servers.

First of all, you must choose one LTSP server to be the load-balancing server. All the clients will PXE-boot from this server and load the Skolelinux image. After the image is loaded, LDM chooses which server to connect to by using the "get_hosts" script. You will decide later how this is done.

The load-balancing server must be announced to the clients as the "next-server" via DHCP. As DHCP configuration is in LDAP, modifications have to be done there. Use ldapvi --ldap-conf -ZD '(cn=admin)' to edit the appropriate entry in LDAP. (Enter the main server's root password at the prompt; if VISUAL isn't set, the default editor will be nano.) Search for a line reading dhcpStatements: next-server tjener Next-server should be the IP address or hostname of the server you chose to be the load-balancing server. If you use hostname you must have a working DNS. Remember to restart the DHCP service.

Now you have to move your clients from the 192.168.0.0 network to the 10.0.0.0 network; attach them to the backbone network instead of the network attached to the LTSP server's second network card. This is because when you use load-balancing, the clients need direct access to the server chosen by LDM. If you leave your clients on the 192.168.0.0 network, all of the clients' traffic will go through that server before it reaches the chosen LDM server.

17.4.4.2. Parte 2

Now you have to make a "get_hosts" script which generates a list of server names for LDM to connect to. The parameter LDM_SERVER overrides this script. In consequence, this parameter must not be defined if the get_hosts is going to be used. The get_hosts script writes on the standard output each server IP address or host name, in random order.

Edit "/opt/ltsp/amd64/etc/lts.conf" and add something like this:

MY_SERVER_LIST = "xxxx xxxx xxxx"

Replace xxxx with either the IP addresses or hostnames of the servers as a space-separated list. Then, put the following script in /opt/ltsp/amd64/usr/lib/ltsp/get_hosts on the server you chose to be the load-balancing server.

 #!/bin/bash
 # Randomise the server list contained in MY_SERVER_LIST parameter
 TMP_LIST=""
 SHUFFLED_LIST=""
 for i in $MY_SERVER_LIST; do
     rank=$RANDOM
     let "rank %= 100"
     TMP_LIST="$TMP_LIST\n${rank}_$i"
 done
 TMP_LIST=$(echo -e $TMP_LIST | sort)
 for i in $TMP_LIST; do
     SHUFFLED_LIST="$SHUFFLED_LIST $(echo $i | cut -d_ -f2)"
 done
 echo $SHUFFLED_LIST
17.4.4.3. Part 3

Now that you've made the "get_hosts" script, it's time to make the SSH host key for the LTSP chroots. This can be done by making a file containing the content of /opt/ltsp/amd64/etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts from all the LTSP servers that will be load-balanced. Save this file as /etc/ltsp/ssh_known_hosts.extra on all load-balanced servers. The last step is very important because ltsp-update-sshkeys runs every time a server is booted, and /etc/ltsp/ssh_known_hosts.extra is included if it exists.

/!\ If you save your new host file as /opt/ltsp/amd64/etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts, it will be erased when you reboot the server.

There are some obvious weaknesses with this setup. All clients get their image from the same server, which causes high loads on the server if many clients are booted at the same time. Also, the clients require that server to be always available; without it they cannot boot or get an LDM server. Therefore this setup is very dependent on one server, which isn't very good.

¡Sus clientes ahora deberían tener balanceo de carga!

17.4.5. Sonido con clientes LTSP

LTSP thin clients use networked audio to pass audio from the server to the clients.

LTSP diskless workstations handle audio locally.

17.4.6. Use printers attached to LTSP clients

  • Attach the printer to the LTSP client machine (both USB and parallel port are supported).

  • Configure this machine to run a printer in lts.conf (default location: /opt/ltsp/amd64/etc/lts.conf), see the LTSP manual /usr/share/doc/ltsp/LTSPManual.html#printer for details.

  • Configure the printer using the web interface https://www:631 on the main server; choose network printer type AppSocket/HP JetDirect (for all printers regardless of brand or model) and set socket://<LTSP client ip>:9100 as connection URI.

17.4.7. Use NFS instead of NBD

To speed up customizing and testing an LTSP chroot NFS could be used.

# Switch from NBD --> NFS:
sed -i 's/default ltsp-NBD/default ltsp-NFS' /opt/ltsp/$(dpkg --print-architecture)/boot/pxelinux.cfg/ltsp
sed -i 's/ontimeout ltsp-NBD/ontimeout ltsp-NFS/' /opt/ltsp/$(dpkg --print-architecture)/boot/pxelinux.cfg/ltsp
ltsp-update-kernels
# Switch from NFS --> NBD:
ltsp-update-image 
sed -i 's/default ltsp-NFS/default ltsp-NBD' /opt/ltsp/$(dpkg --print-architecture)/boot/pxelinux.cfg/ltsp
sed -i 's/ontimeout ltsp-NFS/ontimeout ltsp-NBD/' /opt/ltsp/$(dpkg --print-architecture)/boot/pxelinux.cfg/ltsp
ltsp-update-kernels

17.4.8. Actualización del entorno LTSP

It is useful to upgrade the LTSP environment with new packages fairly often, to make sure security fixes and improvements are made available. To upgrade, run these commands as user root on each LTSP server:

ltsp-chroot -a amd64  # this does "chroot /opt/ltsp/amd64" and more, ie it also prevents daemons from being started
apt update
apt upgrade
apt full-upgrade
exit
ltsp-update-image
17.4.8.1. Instalación de software adicional en el entorno LTSP

To install additional software for an LTSP client you must perform the installation inside the chroot of the LTSP server.

ltsp-chroot -a amd64
## optionally, edit the sources.list:
#editor /etc/apt/sources.list
apt update
apt install $new_package
exit
ltsp-update-image

17.4.9. Slow login and security

Skolelinux has added several security features on the client network preventing unauthorised superuser access, password sniffing, and other tricks which may be used on a local network. One such security measure is secure login using SSH, which is the default with LDM. This can slow down some client machines which are more than about fifteen years old, with as little as a 160 MHz processor and 32 MB RAM. Although it's not recommended, you can add a line to /opt/ltsp/amd64/etc/lts.conf containing:

LDM_DIRECTX=True

/!\ Warning: The above protects initial login, but all activities after that use unencrypted networked X. Passwords (except the initial one) will travel in cleartext over the network, as well as anything else.

Note: Since such fifteen-year-old thin clients may also have trouble running newer versions of LibreOffice and Firefox due to pixmap caching issues, you may consider running thin clients with at least 128 MB RAM, or upgrade the hardware, which will also give you the benefit of being able to use them as diskless workstations.

17.5. Connecting Windows machines to the network / Windows integration

17.5.1. Joining a domain

For Windows clients the Windows domain "SKOLELINUX" is available to be joined. A special service called Samba, installed on the main server, enables Windows clients to store profiles and user data, and also authenticates the users during the login.

/!\ Joining a domain with a Windows client requires the steps described in the Debian Edu Buster Samba Howto.

Windows will sync the profiles of domain users on every Windows login and logout. Depending on how much data is stored in the profile, this could take some time. To minimise the time needed, deactivate things like local cache in browsers (you can use the Squid proxy cache installed on the main server instead) and save files into the H: volume rather than under "My Documents".

17.6. Remote Desktop

Choosing the LTSP server profile or the combined server profile also installs the xrdp and x2goserver packages.

17.6.1. Xrdp

Xrdp uses the Remote Desktop Protocol to present a graphical login to a remote client. Microsoft Windows users can connect to the LTSP server running xrdp without installing additional software - they simply start a Remote Desktop Connection on their Windows machine and connect.

Additionally, xrdp can connect to a VNC server or another RDP server.

Xrdp comes without sound support; to compile the required modules this script could be used.

 #!/bin/bash
 # Script to compile / recompile xrdp PulseAudio modules.
 # The caller needs to be root or a member of the sudo group.
 # Also, /etc/apt/sources.list must contain a valid deb-src line.
 set -e
  if [[ $UID -ne 0 ]] ; then  
     if ! groups | egrep -q sudo ; then
         echo "ERROR: You need to be root or a sudo group member."
         exit 1
     fi
 fi
 if ! egrep -q  ^deb-src /etc/apt/sources.list ; then
     echo "ERROR: Make sure /etc/apt/sources.list contains a deb-src line."
     exit 1
 fi
 TMP=$(mktemp -d)
 PULSE_UPSTREAM_VERSION="$(dpkg-query -W -f='${source:Upstream-Version}' pulseaudio)"
 XRDP_UPSTREAM_VERSION="$(dpkg-query -W -f='${source:Upstream-Version}' xrdp)"
 sudo apt -q update
 # Get sources and build dependencies:
 sudo apt -q install dpkg-dev
 cd $TMP
 apt -q source pulseaudio xrdp
 sudo apt -q build-dep pulseaudio xrdp
 # For pulseaudio 'configure' is all what is needed:
 cd pulseaudio-$PULSE_UPSTREAM_VERSION/
 ./configure
 # Adjust pulseaudio modules Makefile (needs absolute path)
 # and build the pulseaudio modules.
 cd $TMP/xrdp-$XRDP_UPSTREAM_VERSION/sesman/chansrv/pulse/
 sed -i 's/^PULSE/#PULSE/' Makefile
 sed -i "/#PULSE_DIR/a \
 PULSE_DIR = $TMP/pulseaudio-$PULSE_UPSTREAM_VERSION" Makefile
 make
 # Copy modules to Pulseaudio modules directory, adjust rights.
 sudo cp *.so /usr/lib/pulse-$PULSE_UPSTREAM_VERSION/modules/
 sudo chmod 644 /usr/lib/pulse-$PULSE_UPSTREAM_VERSION/modules/module-xrdp*
 # Restart xrdp, now with sound enabled.
 sudo service xrdp restart

17.6.2. X2Go

X2Go enables you to access a graphical desktop on the LTSP server over both low bandwidth and high bandwidth connections from a PC running Linux, Windows or macOS. Additional software is needed on the client side, see the X2Go wiki for more information.

Please note that the killer package should best be removed on the LTSP server if X2Go is used, see 890517.

17.6.3. Clientes de escritorio remoto disponible

  • freerdp-x11 is installed by default and is capable of RDP and VNC.

    • RDP - the easiest way to access Windows terminal server. An alternative client package is rdesktop.

    • VNC client (Virtual Network Computer) gives access to Skolelinux remotely. An alternative client package is xvncviewer.

  • x2goclient is a graphical client for the X2Go system (not installed by default). You can use it to connect to running sessions and start new ones.

  • Citrix ICA client HowTo to access Windows terminal server from Skolelinux.

18. Samba en Debian Edu

/!\ Please read the information provided on the Samba wiki about supported Windows versions, needed registry patches and other procedures before proceeding.

https://wiki.samba.org/index.php/Joining_a_Windows_Client_or_Server_to_a_Domain

https://wiki.samba.org/index.php/Required_Settings_for_Samba_NT4_Domains

Samba has been fully prepared for use as an NT4-style domain controller. After a machine has joined the domain, this machine can be fully managed with GOsa².

18.1. Cómo empezar

This documentation presumes that you have installed the Debian Edu main server and also a Debian Edu workstation. We presume that you have already created some users that can login and use the Debian Edu workstation. We also presume that you have a Windows workstation at hand, so you can test access to the Debian Edu main server from a Windows machine.

Después de la instalación del servidor principal de Debian Edu, \\TJENER debería ser visible desde computadoras con Windows. El dominio de Debian Edu en Windows es SKOLELINUX. Utilice una computadora con Windows (o Linux con smbclient) para explorar su entorno de red de Windows/Samba.

  1. INICIO -> comando ejecutar.

  2. Esriba \\TJENER y presione enter.

  3. -> a Windows Explorer window should open and show the netlogon share on \\TJENER, and maybe printers you already have configured for printing under Unix/Linux (CUPS queues).

18.1.1. Acceder los archivos mediante Samba

Student and teacher user accounts that have been configured via GOsa² should be able to authenticate against \\TJENER\HOMES or \\TJENER\<username> and access their home directories even with Windows machines not joined to the Windows SKOLELINUX domain.

  1. INICIO -> comando ejecutar.

  2. Escriba \\TJENER\HOMES o \\TJENER\<username> y presione enter.

  3. Escriba su datos de usuario y contraseña en la ventana de autenticación que aparece.

  4. -> una ventana de explorador de Windows se abrirá y le mostrará los archivos y directorios en su directorio personal de Debian Edu.

Por defecto, solamente [home] y [netlogon] son exportadas; más ejemplos para estudiantes y profesores sobre como compartir pueden encontrarse en /etc/samba/smb-debian-edu.conf en el servidor principal de Debian Edu.

18.2. Domain Membership

To use Samba on TJENER as a domain controller, your network's Windows workstations have to join the SKOLELINUX domain provided by the Debian Edu main server.

The first thing you have to do is to enable the SKOLELINUX\Administrator account. This account is not intended for day-to-day usage; its current main purpose is to add Windows machines to the SKOLELINUX domain. To enable this account log on to TJENER as the first user (created during main server installation) and run this command:

  • $ sudo smbpasswd -e Administrator

The password of SKOLELINUX\Administrator has been preconfigured during the main server's installation. Please use the system's root account when authenticating as SKOLELINUX\Administrator.

Once you are done with your administrative work make sure to disable the SKOLELINUX\Administrator account again:

  • $ sudo smbpasswd -d Administrator

18.2.1. Windows hostname

Make sure your Windows machine has the name that you want to use in the SKOLELINUX domain. If not, rename it first (and then reboot). The NetBIOS host name of the Windows machine will later on be used in GOsa² and cannot be changed there (without breaking the domain membership for this machine).

18.3. First Domain Logon

Debian Edu ships some logon scripts that pre-configure the Windows user profile on first logon. When logging on to a Windows workstation that has joined the SKOLELINUX domain for the first time the following tasks are run:

  1. copy the user's Firefox profile to a separate location and register that with Mozilla Firefox on Windows

  2. set up Web-Proxy and start page in Firefox

  3. set up Web-Proxy and start page in IE

  4. add a MyHome icon to the Desktop that points to drive H: and opens Windows Explorer on double-click

Other tasks are run on every logon. For further information on this, please refer to the /etc/samba/netlogon folder on your Debian Edu main server.

19. HowTos for teaching and learning

All Debian packages mentioned in this section can be installed by running apt install <package> (as root).

19.1. Teaching Programming

stable/education-development is a meta package depending on a lot of programming tools. Please note that almost 2 GiB of disk space is needed if this package is installed. For more details (maybe to install only a few packages), see the Debian Edu Development packages page.

19.2. Monitoring pupils

/!\ Warning: make sure you know the status of the laws about monitoring and restricting computer users' activities in your jurisdiction.

Some schools use control tools like Epoptes or Veyon to supervise their students. See also: Epoptes Homepage and Veyon Homepage.

To get full Epoptes support, these steps are required.

# Run on a combi server (and on each additional ltsp server):
apt update
apt install epoptes
ltsp-chroot -m --arch amd64 apt update
ltsp-chroot -m --arch amd64 apt install epoptes-client
ltsp-chroot -m --arch amd64 apt install ssvnc
ltsp-chroot -m --arch amd64 sed -i 's/test -f/#test -f/' /etc/init.d/epoptes-client 
ltsp-chroot -m --arch amd64 sed -i 's/grep -qs/#grep -qs/' /etc/init.d/epoptes-client 
# If diskspace matters, use 'ltsp-update-image -n' instead.
ltsp-update-image

19.3. Restricting pupils' network access

Some schools use Squidguard or Dansguardian to restrict Internet access.

20. HowTos for users

20.1. Changing passwords

Casa usuario debería cambiar su contraseña usando GOsa². Para hacerlo, solo use un navegador web y vaya a https://www/gosa/.

Using GOsa² to change the password ensures that passwords for Kerberos (krbPrincipalKey), LDAP (userPassword) and Samba (sambaNTPassword and sambaLMPassword) are the same.

Changing passwords using PAM is working also at the GDM login prompt, but this will only update the Kerberos password, and not the Samba and GOsa² (LDAP) password. So after you changed your password at the login prompt, you really should also change it using GOsa².

20.2. Java

20.2.1. Running standalone Java applications

Standalone Java applications are supported out of the box by the OpenJDK Java runtime.

20.3. Using email

All users can send and receive mails within the internal network; certificates are provided to allow TLS secured connections. To allow mail outside the internal network, the administrator needs to configure the mailserver exim4 to suit the local situation, starting with dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config.

Every user who wants to use Thunderbird needs to configure it as follows. For a user with username jdoe the internal email address is jdoe@postoffice.intern.

20.3.1. Thunderbird

  • Start Thunderbird

  • Click 'Skip this and use my existing email'

  • Enter your email address

  • Don't enter your password as Kerberos single sign on will be used

  • Click 'Continue'

  • For both IMAP and SMTP the settings should be 'STARTTLS' and 'Kerberos/GSSAPI'; adjust if not detected automatically

  • Click 'Done'

20.3.2. Obtener un ticket Kerberos para leer correos en las estaciones de trabajo sin disco

If working on a diskless workstation, you don't have a Kerberos TGT by default. To get one, click the credentials button in the system tray. Enter your password and the ticket will be granted.

20.4. Volume control

En clientes ligeros, pavucontrol o alsamixer (pero no kmix) puede ser usado para ajustar el volumen.

En otras computadoras (estaciones de trabajo, servidores LTSP y estaciones de trabajo sin disco), puede usar kmix o alsamixer.

21. Contribuir

21.1. Contribute locally

Actualmente hay equipos locales en Noruega, Alemania, la región de Extremadura en España, Taiwan y Francia. Contruibdores y usuarias "aislados" existen en Grecia, Holanda, Japan y otros lugares.

El capítulo de soporte contiene explicaciones y enlaces a recursos localizados, ya que contruibuir y apoyar son dos lados de la misma moneda.

21.2. Contribuye a nivel global

A nivel internacional estamos organizados en varios equipos que trabajan en distintas áreas.

Most of the time, the developer mailing list is our main medium for communication, though we have monthly IRC meetings on #debian-edu on irc.debian.org and even, less frequently, real gatherings, where we meet each other in person. New contributors should read our http://wiki.debian.org/DebianEdu/ArchivePolicy.

A good way to learn what is happening in the development of Debian Edu is to subscribe to the commit mailinglist.

21.3. Documentación para editores y traductores

¡Este documento necesita de su ayuda! No está finalizado todavía: si lo lee, notará varias lineas que dicen POR CORREGIR. Si usted saber lo que se necesita corregir, considere compartir su conocimiento con nosotros.

The source of the text is a wiki and can be edited with a simple webbrowser. Just go to http://wiki.debian.org/DebianEdu/Documentation/Buster/ and you can contribute easily. Note: a user account is needed to edit the pages; you need to create a wiki user first.

Another very good way to contribute and to help users is by translating software and documentation. Information on how to translate this document can be found in the translations chapter of this book. Please consider helping the translation effort of this book!

22. Soporte

22.1. Soporte basado en voluntarios

22.1.1. in English

22.1.2. in Norwegian

22.1.3. in German

22.1.4. in French

22.2. Soporte profesional

Lists of companies providing professional support are available from http://wiki.debian.org/DebianEdu/Help/ProfessionalHelp.

23. New features in Debian Edu Buster

23.1. New features for Debian Edu 10+edu0 Codename Buster

23.1.1. Installation changes

  • This is the first time Debian Edu installation images are available at https://cdimage.debian.org, thus these are official Debian images.

  • New version of debian-installer from Debian Buster, see its installation manual for more details.

  • New artwork based on the futurePrototype theme, the default artwork for Debian 10 Buster.

  • New default desktop environment Xfce (replacing KDE).

  • New CFEngine configuration management (replacing unmaintained package cfengine2 with cfengine3); this is a major change, for details see the official CFEngine documentation.

  • The architecture of the LTSP chroot now defaults to the server one.

23.1.2. Actualizaciones de software

  • Everything which is new in Debian 10 Buster, eg:

    • Linux kernel 4.19

    • Desktop environments KDE Plasma Workspace 5.14, GNOME 3.30, Xfce 4.12, LXDE 0.99.2, MATE 1.20

    • Firefox 60.7 ESR and Chromium 73.0

    • LibreOffice 6.1

    • Educational toolbox GCompris 0.95

    • Music creator Rosegarden 18.12

    • GOsa 2.74

    • LTSP 5.18

    • Debian Buster includes more than 57000 packages available for installation.

23.1.3. Actualizaciones en documentación y traducciones

  • Translation updates for the templates used in the installer. These templates are now available in 76 languages, of which 31 are fully translated. The profile choice page is available in 29 languages, of which 19 are fully translated.

  • The Debian Edu Buster Manual is fully translated to French, German, Italian, Danish, Dutch, Norwegian Bokmål and Japanese.

    • Partly translated versions exist for Polish, Spanish, Simplified Chinese and Traditional Chinese.

23.1.4. Other changes compared to the previous release

  • The BD ISO image can be used for offline installations again.

  • New school level related meta-packages education-preschool, education-primaryschool, education-secondaryschool and education-highschool are available. None of them is installed by default.

  • Some packages rather belonging to preschool or primaryschool level (like gcompris-qt, childsplay, tuxpaint or tuxmath) are no longer installed by default.

  • Site specific modular installation. It is now possible to install only those educational packages that are actually wanted. See the installation chapter for more information.

  • Site specific multi-language support. See the Desktop chapter for more information.

  • LXQt 0.14 is offered as a new choice for the desktop environment.

  • New GOsa²-Plugin Password Management.

  • Unusable options have been removed from the GOsa² web interface.

  • New netgroup available to exclude systems belonging to the shut-down-at-night-hosts netgroup from being woken up.

  • New tool Standardskriver (Default printer). See the Administration chapter for more information.

  • New tool Desktop-autoloader. It allows performance improvements for LTSP diskless clients. See the NetworkClients chapter for more information.

  • Improved TLS/SSL support inside the internal network. A RootCA certificate is used to sign server certificates and user home directories are configured to accept it at account creation time; besides Firefox ESR, also Chromium and Konqueror can now use HTTPS without the need to allow insecure connections.

  • Kerberized ssh. A password isn't needed anymore for connections inside the internal network; root needs to run kinit first to enable it.

  • Kerberized NFS. It is now possible to use more secure home directory access, see the Administration chapter for more information.

  • Added configuration file /etc/debian-edu/pxeinstall.conf with examples to make site specific changes easier.

  • Added configuration file /etc/ltsp/ltsp-build-client.conf with examples to make site specific changes easier.

  • New tool /usr/share/debian-edu-config/tools/edu-ldap-from-scratch. It allows to re-generate the LDAP database just like it has been right after the main server installation. The tool might also be useful to make site specific changes easier.

  • With X2Go server now available in Debian, the related packages are now installed on all systems with Profile LTSP-Server.

  • Support for running Java applets in the Firefox ESR browser has been dropped upstream.

  • Support for nonfree flash has been dropped from the Firefox ESR browser.

  • Like it has been before Stretch, Debian 10 doesn't install the unattended-upgrades package by default, see the Maintenance chapter for more information about security upgrades.

23.1.5. Known issues

24. Copyright y authores

This document is written and copyrighted by Holger Levsen (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019), Petter Reinholdtsen (2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, 2014), Daniel Heß (2007), Patrick Winnertz (2007), Knut Yrvin (2007), Ralf Gesellensetter (2007), Ronny Aasen (2007), Morten Werner Forsbring (2007), Bjarne Nielsen (2007, 2008), Nigel Barker (2007), José L. Redrejo Rodríguez (2007), John Bildoy (2007), Joakim Seeberg (2008), Jürgen Leibner (2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014), Oded Naveh (2009), Philipp Hübner (2009, 2010), Andreas Mundt (2010), Olivier Vitrat (2010, 2012), Vagrant Cascadian (2010), Mike Gabriel (2011), Justin B Rye (2012), David Prévot (2012), Wolfgang Schweer (2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019), Bernhard Hammes (2012) and Joe Hansen (2015) and is released under the GPL2 or any later version. Enjoy!

If you add content to it, please only do so if you are the author. You need to release it under the same conditions! Then add your name here and release it under the "GPL v2 or any later version" licence.

25. Traducciones de este documento

Versions of this document translated into German, Italian, French, Danish, Dutch, Norwegian Bokmål and Japanese are available. Incomplete translations exist for Spanish, Polish and Simplified Chinese. There is an online overview of shipped translations.

25.1. HowTo translate this document

25.1.1. Translate using PO files

As in many free software projects, translations of this document are kept in PO files. More information about the process can be found in /usr/share/doc/debian-edu-doc/README.debian-edu-buster-manual-translations. The Git repository (see below) contains this file too. Take a look there and at the language specific conventions if you want to help translating this document.

To commit your translations you need to be a member of the Salsa project debian-edu.

Then check out the debian-edu-doc source using ssh access: git clone git@salsa.debian.org:debian-edu/debian-edu-doc.git

If you only want to translate, you need to check out only a few files from Git (which can be done anonymously). Please file a bug against the debian-edu-doc package and attach the PO file to the bugreport. See instructions on how to submit bugs for more information.

You can check out the debian-edu-doc source anonymously with the following command (you need to have the git package installed for this to work):

  • git clone https://salsa.debian.org/debian-edu/debian-edu-doc.git

Then edit the file documentation/debian-edu-buster/debian-edu-buster-manual.$CC.po (replacing $CC with your language code). There are many tools for translating available; we suggest using lokalize.

Then you either commit the file directly to Git (if you have the rights to do so) or send the file to the bugreport.

To update your local copy of the repository use the following command inside the debian-edu-doc directory:

  • git pull

Read /usr/share/doc/debian-edu-doc/README.debian-edu-buster-manual-translations to find information how to create a new PO file for your language if there isn't one yet, and how to update translations.

Please keep in mind that this manual is still under development, so don't translate any string which contains " FIXME".

Basic information about Salsa (the host where our Git repository is located) and Git is available at https://wiki.debian.org/Salsa.

If you are new to Git, look at the Pro Git book; it has a chapter on the recording changes to the repository. Also you might want to look at the gitk package that provides a GUI for Git.

25.1.2. Translate online using a web browser

Some language teams have decided to translate via Weblate. See https://hosted.weblate.org/projects/debian-edu-documentation/debian-edu-buster/ for more information.

Please report any problems.

26. Appendix A - The GNU General Public License

Note to translators: there is no need to translate the GPL license text.
Translations are available at https://www.gnu.org/licenses/old-licenses/gpl-2.0-translations.html. 

26.1. Manual for Debian Edu 10+edu0 Codename Buster

Copyright (C) 2007-2018 Holger Levsen < holger@layer-acht.org > and others, see the Copyright chapter for the full list of copyright owners.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

26.2. LICENCIA PUBLICA GENERAL GNU

Version 2, June 1991

Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

26.3. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION

0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".

Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

  • a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

    b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this License.

    c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective works based on the Program.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under the scope of this License.

3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:

  • a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

    b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

    c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received the program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)

The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself accompanies the executable.

If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on it.

6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this License.

7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other circumstances.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of this License.

8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the limitation as if written in the body of this License.

9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

NO WARRANTY

11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

27. Appendix B - no Debian Edu Live CD/DVDs for Buster yet

/!\ Debian Edu Live CD/DVDs for Buster are not available at the moment.

27.1. Features of the Standalone image

  • XFCE desktop

  • All packages from the Standalone profile

  • Todos los paquetes de la tarea «laptop»

27.2. Features of the Workstation image

  • XFCE desktop

  • All packages from the Workstation profile

  • Todos los paquetes de la tarea «laptop»

27.3. Activando el soporte regional y traducciones

To activate a specific translation, boot using locale=ll_CC.UTF-8 as a boot option, where ll_CC.UTF-8 is the locale name you want. To activate a given keyboard layout, use the keyb=KB option where KB is the desired keyboard layout. Here is a list of commonly used locale codes:

Lenguaje (Región)

Valores local

Distribución del teclado

Noruego (Bokmål)

nb_NO.UTF-8

no

Noruego (Nynorsk)

nn_NO.UTF-8

no

Alemán

de_DE.UTF-8

de

Francés (Francia)

fr_FR.UTF-8

fr

Griego (Grecia)

el_GR.UTF-8

el

Japonés

ja_JP.UTF-8

jp

Sami del Norte (Noruega)

se_NO

no(smi)

La lista completa de los códigos locales esta disponible en /usr/share/i18n/SUPPORTED, pero únicamente los locales con UTF-8 son soportados por la imagen «live». No todas las traducciones locales tienen instalación. Las distribuciones de teclados pueden ser encontradas en /usr/share/keymaps/i386/.

27.4. Cosas para saber

  • The password for the user is "user"; root has no password set.

27.5. Problemas conocidos con la imágen

  • /!\ There are no images yet :(

27.6. Descarga

The image would be (but currently isn't) available via FTP, HTTP or rsync from ftp.skolelinux.org under cd-buster-live/.

28. Apéndice C - Características de publicaciones anteriores

28.1. New features for Debian Edu 9+edu0 Codename Stretch released 2017-06-17

28.1.1. Installation changes

  • New version of debian-installer from Debian Stretch, see its installation manual for more details.

  • The "Thin-Client-Server" profile has been renamed to "LTSP-Server" profile.

  • New artwork based on the "soft Waves" theme, the default artwork for Debian 9 Stretch.

28.1.2. Actualizaciones de software

  • Everything which was new in Debian 9 Stretch, eg:

    • Linux kernel 4.9

    • Desktop environments KDE Plasma Workspace 5.8, GNOME 3.22, Xfce 4.12, LXDE 0.99.2, MATE 1.16

      • KDE Plasma Workspace is installed by default; to choose one of the others see this manual.

    • Firefox 45.9 ESR and Chromium 59

      • Iceweasel has been re-renamed to Firefox! :-)

    • Icedove has been re-renamed to Thunderbird and is now installed by default.

    • LibreOffice 5.2.6

    • Educational toolbox GCompris 15.10

    • Music creator Rosegarden 16.06

    • GOsa 2.7.4

    • LTSP 5.5.9

    • Debian Stretch includes more than 50000 packages available for installation.

28.1.3. Actualizaciones en documentación y traducciones

  • Translation updates for the templates used in the installer. These templates are now available in 29 languages.

  • The Debian Edu Stretch Manual is fully translated to German, French, Italian, Danish, Dutch, Norwegian Bokmål and Japanese. The Japanese translation was newly added for Stretch.

    • Partly translated versions exist for Spanish, Polish and Simplified Chinese.

28.1.4. Other changes compared to the previous release

  • Icinga replaces Nagios as monitoring tool.

  • kde-spectacle replaces ksnapshot as screenshot tool.

  • The free flash player gnash is back again.

  • Plymouth is installed and activated by default, except for the 'Main Server' and 'Minimal' profiles; pressing ESC allows to view boot and shutdown messages.

  • Upon upgrade from Jessie the LDAP data base has to be adjusted. The sudoHost value 'tjener' has to be replaced with 'tjener.intern' using GOsa² or an LDAP editor.

  • The 32-bit PC support (known as the Debian architecture i386) now no longer covers a plain i586 processor. The new baseline is the i686, although some i586 processors (e.g. the "AMD Geode") will remain supported.

  • Debian 9 enables unattended upgrades (for security updates) by default for new installations. This might cause a delay of about 15 minutes if a system with a low uptime value is powered off.

  • LTSP now uses NBD instead of NFS for the root filesystem. After each single change to an LTSP chroot, the related NBD image must be regenerated (ltsp-update-image) for the changes to take effect.

  • Concurrent logins of the same user on LTSP server and LTSP thin client are no longer allowed.

28.2. New features for Debian Edu 8+edu0 Codename Jessie released 2016-07-02

28.2.1. Installation changes

28.2.2. Actualizaciones de software

  • Everything which is new in Debian 8 Jessie, eg:

    • Linux kernel 3.16.x

    • Desktop environments KDE Plasma Workspace 4.11.13, GNOME 3.14, Xfce 4.10, LXDE 0.5.6

      • new optional desktop environment: MATE 1.8

      • KDE Plasma Workspace is installed by default; to choose one of the others see this manual.

    • the browsers Iceweasel 31 ESR and Chromium 41

    • LibreOffice 4.3.3

    • Educational toolbox GCompris 14.12

    • Music creator Rosegarden 14.02

    • GOsa 2.7.4

    • LTSP 5.5.4

    • new boot framework: systemd. More information is available in the Debian systemd wiki page and in thesystemd manual.

    • Debian Jessie includes about 42000 packages available for installation.

28.2.3. Actualizaciones en documentación y traducciones

  • Translation updates for the templates used in the installer. These templates are now available in 29 languages.

  • Two manual translations have been completed: Dutch and Norwegian Bokmål.

  • The Debian Edu Jessie Manual is fully translated to German, French, Italian, Danish, Dutch and Norwegian Bokmål. A partly translated version exists for Spanish.

28.2.4. Other changes compared to the previous release

  • squid: Shutdown and reboot of the main server takes longer than before due to a new default setting shutdown_lifetime 30 seconds. As an example the delay could be set to 10 seconds by appending the line shutdown_lifetime 10 seconds to /etc/squid3/squid.conf.

  • ssh: The root user is no longer allowed to login via SSH with password. The old default PermitRootLogin yes has been replaced with PermitRootLogin without-password, so ssh-keys will still work.

  • slbackup-php: To be able to use the slbackup-php site (which uses root logins via ssh), PermitRootLogin yes has to be set temporarily in /etc/ssh/sshd_config.

  • sugar: As the Sugar desktop was removed from Debian Jessie, it is also not available in Debian Edu jessie.

28.3. New features in Debian Edu 7.1+edu0 Codename Wheezy released 2013-09-28

28.3.1. User visible changes

  • Updated artwork and new Debian Edu / Skolelinux logo, visible during installation, in the login screen and as desktop wallpaper.

28.3.2. Installation changes

  • New version of debian-installer from Debian Wheezy, see installation manual for more details.

  • The DVD image was dropped, instead we added a USB flash drive / Blu-ray disc image, which behaves like the DVD image, but is too big to fit on a DVD.

28.3.3. Actualizaciones de software

  • Todo lo nuevo en Debian Wheezy 7.1, por ejemplo:

    • Linux kernel 3.2.x

    • Desktop environments KDE "Plasma" 4.8.4, GNOME 3.4, Xfce 4.8.6, and LXDE 0.5.5 (KDE "Plasma" is installed by default; to choose GNOME, Xfce or LXDE: see manual.)

    • Web browser Iceweasel 17 ESR

    • LibreOffice 3.5.4

    • LTSP 5.4.2

    • GOsa 2.7.4

    • CUPS print system 1.5.3

    • Educational toolbox GCompris 12.01

    • Music creator Rosegarden 12.04

    • Image editor Gimp 2.8.2

    • Virtual universe Celestia 1.6.1

    • Virtual stargazer Stellarium 0.11.3

    • Scratch visual programming environment 1.4.0.6

    • New version of debian-installer from Debian Wheezy, see installation manual for more details.

    • Debian Wheezy includes about 37000 packages available for installation.

28.3.4. Actualizaciones en documentación y traducciones

  • Translation updates for the templates used in the installer. These templates are now available in 29 languages.

  • The Debian Edu Wheezy Manual is fully translated to German, French, Italian and Danish. Partly translated versions exist for Norwegian Bokmål and Spanish.

28.3.5. LDAP related changes

  • Slight changes to some objects and acls to have more types to choose from when adding systems in GOsa. Now systems can be of type server, workstation, printer, terminal or netdevice.

28.3.6. Other changes

  • New Xfce desktop task.

  • LTSP diskless workstations run without any configuration.

  • On the dedicated client network of LTSP servers (default 192.168.0.0/24), machines run by default as diskless workstations if they are powerful enough.

  • GOsa gui: Now some options that seemed to be available, but are non functional, are greyed out (or are not clickable). Some tabs are completely hidden to the end user, others even to the GOsa admin.

28.3.7. Known issues

  • Using KDE "Plasma" on standalone and roaming workstations, at least Konqueror, Chromium and Step sometimes fail to work out-of-the box when the machines are used outside the backbone network, proxy use is required to use the other network but no wpad.dat information is found. Workaround: Use Iceweasel or configure the proxy manually.

28.4. Historic information about older releases

The following Debian Edu releases were made further in the past:

  • Debian Edu 6.0.7+r1 Codename "Squeeze", released 2013-03-03.

  • Debian Edu 6.0.4+r0 Codename "Squeeze", released 2012-03-11.

  • Debian Edu 5.0.6+edu1 Codename "Lenny", released 2010-10-05.

  • Debian Edu 5.0.4+edu0 Codename "Lenny", released 2010-02-08.

  • Debian Edu "3.0r1 Terra", released 2007-12-05.

  • Debian Edu "3.0r0 Terra" released 2007-07-22. Based on Debian 4.0 Etch released 2007-04-08.

  • Debian Edu 2.0, released 2006-03-14. Based on Debian 3.1 Sarge released 2005-06-06.

  • Debian Edu "1.0 Venus" release 2004-06-20. Based on Debian 3.0 Woody released 2002-07-19.

A complete and detailed overview about older releases is contained in Appendix C of the Jessie manual; or see the related release manuals on the release manuals page.

28.4.1. Más información sobre versiones más anteriores

More information on even older (pre-)releases can be found at http://developer.skolelinux.no/info/cdbygging/news.html.